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#1 23-09-2017 11:05:58

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Xylella

The olive quick decline syndrome (OQDS) diffusion in Apulia Region: an apparent contradiction according to the agricultural model
La diffusion du complexe du dessèchement rapide de l’olivier (CDRO) dans les Pouilles: une apparente contradiction par rapport au modèle agricole
Margherita Ciervo
https://belgeo.revues.org/20290

6 the attention has been concentrated on the xf even if some studies asserted that “we were unable to determine if xf is or is not the causal agent of OLSD, olive leaf scorch disease” (Krugner et al., 2011, p. 3) and others showed that xf was not always present in the sample collected from trees with symptoms or that the quick decline was associated with different fungal species (Carlucci et al., 2013ab, 2015; Giannozzi et al., 2013; Nigro et al., 2013). In addition, there are “attestations that fungi can cause individually the decline of trees” (EC, 2014a, p. 7). On the other hand, the empiric evidence reveals that around 500 olive trees with decline symptoms have been sprouting again after biological control measures of fungi pathogens (http://temi.repubblica.it/micromega-onl … =undefined).

7 Moreover, some more recent studies conducted in California on olive trees exhibiting leaf scorch or branch die-back symptoms have shown that they are not well correlated with xf presence. In fact, “only approximately 17% of diseased trees tested positive for X. fastidiosa by polymerase chain reaction, and disease symptoms could not be attributed to X. fastidiosa infection of olive in greenhouse pathogenicity assays”, as well as the “mechanical inoculation of X. fastidiosa olive strains to olive resulted in infection at low efficiency but infections remained asymptomatic and tended to be self-limiting” (Krugner et al., 2014, p. 1186).

13 The other main position ascribes the leaf scorch symptoms and die-back of twigs and branches not necessarily to the Xylella fastidiosa but to some different biological and agronomic causes as fungi (Carlucci et al., 2013a, 2015), the decline of agronomic practices and the abuse of chemical products (Perrino, 2015). According to Perrino (2015), former Director of the Vegetable Genetic Institute of CNR- Bari, the development of pathogens could be the effect and not the cause of the illness of olive plants, which have become more vulnerable for the reduction of biodiversity due to the industrial agriculture and, thus, to the abuse of chemical products, herbicides, etc., as well as to the negative climatic factors (humidity, temperature, thermal excursion) and the water stress. In this case, the research’s aim is to treat the olive trees suffering from OQDS. For example, the University of Foggia (Department of Environmental, Food, Agrarian Science) and the University of Salento (Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences and Technologies), together with the Farmers’ Confederation (COPAGRI-Lecce), have developed a project to identify environmentally compatible products in order to reduce or remove the pathogen charge referring both to fungi and bacteria that cause the OQDS, as well as to stimulate the plant resistance and the vegetative recovery

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#2 03-04-2018 18:45:38

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Re : Xylella

KRUGNER R., JOHNSON M.W. & CHEN J. (2010), “Evaluation of Pathogenicity and Insect Transmission of Xylella fastidiosa Strains to Olive Plants”, in JOHNSON M.W. (2011), California Olive Committee Final Research Reports 2010, California, University of California.
Résumé : https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publi … 115=251871
"Samples from 90 olive plants showing branch dieback and leaf scorch symptoms were collected to determine if Xf was associated with presence of disease symptoms. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and isolation detected Xf in 23 samples, from which three strains were isolated. Four-primer DNA analysis indicated that Xf in all positive samples had the A genotype. This genotype causes almond and oleander leaf scorch diseases, but not Pierce’s disease in grapevines. Healthy olive plants were needle-inoculated with bacterial cells from laboratory cultures and rated for symptom development every two weeks for a year. Symptom development in needle-inoculated plants was variable. Consequently, the status of Xf as the causal agent of OLSD remains unresolved."

KRUGNER R., SISTERON M.S., CHEN J.C., STENGER D.C. & JOHNSON M.W. (2014), “Evaluation of olive as a host of Xylella fastidiosa and associated sharpshooters vectors”, Plant Disease, 98, St. Paul-MN USA, The American Phytopathological Society, pp. 1186-1193.
Texte complet : https://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/pdf/ … 14-0014-RE
"Only approximately 17% of diseased trees tested positive for X. fastidiosa by polymerase chain reaction, and disease  symptoms  could  not  be  attributed  to X.  fastidiosa  infection  of  olive  in  greenhouse  pathogenicity  assays."

CARLUCCI A., LOPS F., MARCHI G., MUGNAI L. & SURICO G. (2013b), “Has Xylella fastidiosa ‘chosen’ olive trees to establish in the Mediterranean basin?”, Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 52, Firenze, Firenze University Press, pp. 541-544.
Texte complet : http://www.fupress.net/index.php/pm/art … 3623/13044
" The  symptoms observed in the northern part of Apulia consisted of generalised  decline  of  the  trees,  beginning  with  foliar  discoloration  and  leaf  fall,  wilting  of  the  apical shoots,  dieback  of  twigs  and  branches,  and  brown  wood  streaking  of  the  trunks,  branches  and  twigs. With  the  exception  of  the  brown  wood  streaking, all  these  symptoms  resembled Verticillium dahliae infections.  At  a  later  stage  of  the  disease,  necrosis and cankers developed on the bark of affected trees. Morphological and molecular analyses assigned the cause  of  the  disease  to Pleurostomophora  richardsiae, Neofusicoccum  parvum  and Phaeoacremonium  aleophilum, which  are,  in  part,  the  same  species  found  in olive  trees  of  the  Salento  peninsula  (and  also  in  the olives  in  California  affected  by  twig  and  branch dieback  disease)."
"Some  other  questions  remain: why  does  the  bacterium  occur  especially  in  aged trees, and why did it so suddenly and so severely attack olive trees over such a large area (approx. 8,000 ha)  (in  Sportelli,  2013).  Can  it  be  hypothesized  that the  bacterium  was  already  present  as  non-sympto-matic  infections?"

CARLUCCI A., LOPS F., CIBELLI F. & RAIMONDO M.L. (2015), “Phaeoacremonium species associated with olive wilt and decline in southern Italy”, European Journal of Plant Pathology, 141, Amsterdam, Springer Netherlands, pp. 717-729.
DOI : 10.1007/s10658-014-0573-8

CARLUCCI A., INGROSSO F., FAGGIANO S, RAIMONDO M.L. & LOPS F. (2016), “Strategie per contenere il disseccamento degli olivi”, L’Informatore Agrario, Roma, Edizioni l’Informatore Agrario, pp. 58-63.


 
Carlucci Antonia, Fabio Ingrosso, Francesco Lops
Sustainable strategies to contain the Olive Quick Decline Syndrome in southeast Italy
In Options Méditerranéennes, A No.121, 2017 - Xylella fastidiosa & the Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS) A serious worldwide challenge for the safeguard of olive trees
Texte complet (d'autres textes intéressants dans le recueil) : http://om.ciheam.org/om/pdf/a121/a121.pdf#page=86
"Indeed,  the  Salento  olive  trees  affected  by  OQDS  were  seen  to  be massively  infested  by Zeuzera  pyrina,  while  the  wood  contained  various  vascular  fungi  such  as Phaeoacremonium  parasiticum, Pm.  rubrigenum, Pm.  minimum (= Pm.  aleophilum), Pm. alvesii, Phaeomoniella spp.  and  fungal  species  belonging  to  the  family  Botryosphaeriaceae." 


GIANNOZZI G., RICCIOLINI M., RIZZO D., MUSETTI N. & SURICO G. (2013), Xylella fastidiosa, Agente del Complesso del disseccamento rapido dell’olivo (CoDiRO), Firenze, Regione Toscana – Servizio Fitosanitario Regionale.


NIGRO F., BOSCIA D., ANTELMI I. & IPPOLITO A. (2013), “Fungal species associated with a severe decline of olive in southern Italy”, Journal of Plant Pathology, 95, Pisa, Edizioni ETS, p. 668.

EC, EUROPEAN COMMISSION (2014a), Relazione su un Audit condotto in Italia dal 10 al 14 febbraio 2014 al fine di valutare la situazione della Xylella fastidiosa e i relativi controlli ufficiali, DG(SANCO) 2014-7260 – RM FINAL, Bruxelles.

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#3 03-04-2018 18:50:14

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Re : Xylella

Salviamo gli ulivi della Puglia!

Non ci sono prove che sia il batterio della Xylella la causa della malattia degli ulivi in Salento. Anzi, studi scientifici suggeriscono altre cause. Ma la politica, dalla Regione Puglia all’Ue, ha già decretato l’abbattimento di migliaia di piante. Le associazioni e gli agricoltori salentini si mobilitano per scongiurare la fine di un intero ecosistema.

di Antonia Battaglia

http://temi.repubblica.it/micromega-onl … =undefined

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#4 03-04-2018 21:55:13

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Re : Xylella

Research outcomes on Xylella fastidiosa published by XF-ACTORS and POnTE projects
21/03/2018
http://www.xfactorsproject.eu/press_rev … -projects/

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#5 03-04-2018 22:13:39

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Re : Xylella

ANALYSES ET CONSIDERATIONS (AMERES) SUR LE DESSECHEMENT DES OLIVIERS DANS LES POUILLES
27 mai 2016
http://www.mnle.fr/analyses-et-consider … -pouilles/

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#6 04-04-2018 00:35:02

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Re : Xylella

Biology and pathogenicity of Xylella fastidiosa associated to olive quick decline syndrome
Maria Saponari, PhD
Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection, CNR - Bari
https://www.efsa.europa.eu/sites/defaul … ponari.pdf

Using insects to detect, monitor and predict the distribution of Xylella fastidiosa : a case study in Corsica
https://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv … 3.full.pdf

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#7 04-04-2018 08:08:39

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Re : Xylella

Network analysis reveals why Xylella fastidiosa will persist in Europe
Giovanni Strona, Corrie Jacobien Carstens & Pieter S. A. Beck
Texte complet : https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-00077-z

(contient notamment la liste de toutes les espèces testées, et le taux de positifs)
Several subspecies and sequence types are associated with the emergence of Xylella fastidiosa in natural settings in France
N. Denancé, B. Legendre, M. Briand, V. Olivier, C. de Boisseson, F. Poliakoff, M.‐A. Jacques
First published: 20 February 2017
Texte complet : https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/ful … /ppa.12695

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#8 04-04-2018 09:41:08

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Re : Xylella

Un article avec 440 commentaires, ça peut faire pas mal d'infos. A étudier.
Xylella, sequestrati tutti gli ulivi da abbattere: 10 indagati. C’è anche commissario straordinario Silletti
https://www.ilfattoquotidiano.it/2015/1 … i/2317258/


“Altro che Xylella, il patogeno è il protagonismo giudiziario”
I magistrati della procura di Lecce stanno affrontando la questione indagando gli scienziati e i ricercatori che hanno scoperto il batterio e lo stanno studiando per arginare il problema. Parla Gilberto Corbellini, epistemologo e storico della Medicina alla Sapienza.
https://www.ilfoglio.it/scienza/2015/12 … rio-90893/


Colidiretti: Emergenza Xylella, buone pratiche agricole per la lotta obbligatoria ed il contenimento
http://www.santeramolive.it/news/attual … m=facebook

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#9 06-04-2018 08:02:17

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Re : Xylella

Pour illustrer le niveau du débat.
Une députée italienne qui avait souligné qu'il n'est pas prouvé de lien entre Codiro et Xylella se voit accusée d'avoir dit que la Xylella est une invention.

https://twitter.com/giomasmic/status/982003432574914560
"prendiamo gli aspetti positivi si ammette che #xylella sottosp.Pauca esiste e non è una cospirazione come affermato dalla rieletta senatrice biologa(?) @Fattorisenato5s"

https://www.facebook.com/Fattori.Elena. … 7455680194
"L'inchiesta della procura di Lecce ha svelato un quadro inquietante sulla presunta "emergenza Xylella" in Puglia, in quanto nessuna ricerca scientifica ha ancora provato il nesso di causalità tra il disseccamento degli ulivi (Codiro) e il batterio da quarantena."

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