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#101 23-11-2018 15:11:52

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

Etudes citées par Bernard Pellet et Jihem Joe.
https://www.mediafire.com/folder/5h953t … oc_PPE%233


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#102 03-12-2018 11:51:33

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

Rolf Degen + vegan

https://twitter.com/search?q=%40degenro … n&src=typd


Seven unflattering truths about vegetarians
https://plus.google.com/101046916407340 … 5vGejoQAmC

1) Most vegetarians aren't really vegetarians: 66 percent of the "vegetarians" had eaten animal flesh in the last 24 hours.

http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/ani … egetarians


2) People are dishonest about their meat eating behavior: Women who think they are going to watch a movie about a slaughterhouse lie about (or as the study says, “strategically under-report”) the amount of meat they eat.

http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/ani … ating-meat


3) It is not possible to stay vegetarian once you start the habit: 84 percent of people who quit eating meat eventually change their minds and return to a diet that includes animal flesh.

https://plus.google.com/101046916407340 … PsRvnMtbYo


4) It is not even possible to start eating less meat once you said you would do so: British researchers discovered that only 25 percent of individuals who claimed to have reduced their meat consumption actually did so.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar … 6383710354


5) Even the Dalai Lama loves meat.

http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/one … 1/got-meat


6) Vegetarians, 90 percent of whom are female, often suffer from depression and eating disorders - vegetarianism even might be an occult eating disorder.

https://ethik.univie.ac.at/fileadmin/us … 714961.pdf


7) There is a strong political bias in vegetarianism: Most vegetarians are liberals. But look back at truth number one! Vegetarianism  is a liberal life lie.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a … 6311005873

84 percent of all vegetarians return to meat
https://plus.google.com/101046916407340 … PsRvnMtbYo


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#103 03-12-2018 22:53:15

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

Why Are There So Few Vegetarians?
Most "vegetarians" eat meat. Huh?
https://www.psychologytoday.com/intl/bl … egetarians

Eating Disorders: The Dark Side of Vegetarianism?
https://www.psychologytoday.com/intl/bl … etarianism

Bas, M., Karabudak, E., & Kiziltan, G. (2005). Vegetarianism and eating disorders: Association between eating attitudes and other psychological factors among Turkish adolescents. Appetite, 44(3), 309-315.

Hormes, J. M., Catanese, D., Bauer, R, & Rozin, P. (2006). Links between meat avoidance, negative eating attitudes, and disordered eating behaviors. Poster session presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association.

Klopp, S. A., Heiss, C. J., & Smith, H. S. (2003). Self-reported vegetarianism may be a marker for college women at risk for disordered eating. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 103(6), 745-747.

Lindeman, M., Stark, K., & Latvala, K. (2000). Vegetarianism and eating-disordered thinking. Eating Disorders, 8(2), 157-165.

Lindeman, M. (2002). The state of mind of vegetarians: Psychological well-being or distress. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 41, 75-86.

Martins, Y.., Pliner, P., & O'Connoer, R. (1999). Restrained eating among vegetarians" Does a vegetarian eating style mask concerns about weight? Appetite, 32, 145-154.

Neumark-Sztainer, D., Story, M., Resnick, M., & Blum, R. (1997). Adolescent vegetarians. A behavioral profile of a school-based population in Minnesota. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 151(8), 833-838.

O'Connor, M. A., Touyz, S. W., Dunn, S. M., & Beumont, P. J. (1987). Vegetarianism in anorexia nervosa? A review of 116 consecutive cases. The Medical Journal of Australia, 147(11-12), 540-542.

Why Do Most Vegetarians Go Back To Eating Meat?
https://www.psychologytoday.com/intl/bl … ating-meat

Staci wasn't always so fit. In her early 30's, Staci's health started going downhill. After twelve years of strict vegetarianism, she began to suffer from anemia and chronic fatigue syndrome, and she experienced stomach pains for two hours after every meal. "I was completely debilitated," she tells me. "Then I changed the way I ate."

"Tell me about your diet now. What did you have for breakfast today?" I ask.

"A half pint of raw beef liver," she says.


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#104 07-12-2018 14:46:04

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

Compilation d'articles par Sverige.
(pas toujours de bonne qualité)

https://pastebin.com/ZSKczhCx


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#105 08-12-2018 09:03:18

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme


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#106 17-02-2019 14:35:44

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

Auteurs de la position officielle de l'ANC, ex-ADA (Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, anciennement American Dietetics Association) sur le végétarisme.

Auteurs 2009 :
Winston J. Craig. : Ecrit des livres sur le végétarisme et l'alimentation végétale. "Herbs for your health", "Vegétarian nutrition for wellness", "A vegetarian way to better health", "The Use and Safety of Commonly Used Herbs and Herbal Teas"...
Ann Reed Mangels : Ecrit des livres sur le végétarisme, notamment pour la grossesse : "Everything vegan pregnancy book", "Your complete vegan pregnancy", "Vegan & Vegetarian FAQ"... Ecrit pour le Vegetarian Journal.

Auteurs 2016 :
Melina Vesanto : Ecrit des livres sur le végétarisme et le crudivorisme. "Becoming raw", "Cooking vegan", Becoming vegan", "Becoming végetarian".
Winston Craig : Voir plus haut.
Susan Levin : Directrice de l'éducation nutritionnelle du Physician Comittee for Responsable Medicine, think tank végan déclaré : "The Physicians Committee is dedicated to saving and improving human and animal lives through plant-based diets and ethical and effective scientific research."

On ne retrouve pas cité dans le document, par exemple, une étude menée par Susan Levin en 2009, et qui conclut à un risque accru de désordre nutritionnel chez les jeunes adultes végétariens.

Vegetarian diets and disordered eating.
Barnard ND, Levin S.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19699828


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#107 03-03-2019 19:30:37

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

Nutriments pouvant induire une carence dans le cadre d'une alimentation végétarienne ou végétalienne, selon physiologie, génétique, état des intestins et du microbiote, etc.
Manque général d'études pour connaître précisément l'ampleur des risques.

Acides aminés : glycine, proline, hydroxyproline (les 3 acides aminés potentiellement problématiques des collagènes, théoriquement non essentiels, mais potentiellement très insuffisamment synthétisés, voir publication glycine ci-dessous, une synthèse suffisante semble très problématique dans tous les cas), glutamine, carnitine, créatine, tyrosine, méthionine (pour tous les acides aminés considérés comme non essentiels, même problème que glycine, doutes sur la capacité de synthèse endogène, et connaissances scientifiques encore réduites), cystéine (à approfondir, semble généralement déficiente chez les séniors, risque d'aggravation si manque de POA).
Acides gras : EPA, DHA (l'EPA est mieux synthétisé depuis l'ALA que le DHA, mais des études montrent un statut très dégradé chez les végétariens et végans, même s'il est difficile d'évaluer le risque clinique. Grosse influence des gènes FADS1 et FADS2, de même que pour l'AA), Acide arachidonique (AA), cholestérol (carence peut-être aussi problématique qu'excès, risque accru de suicide ? voir étude ci-dessous (il y en a d'autres)).
Vitamines : A (conversion depuis béta carotène variable selon individus, dépend bêta-carotène-15,15′-monooxygénase (BCMO1) et gènes associés, peut diminuer si autre carences (iode, zinc), et diverses maladies. Risque possible d'hypercaroténémie si grande consommation de carotènes et mauvaise conversion. Polymorphismes connus : R267S et A379V réduisent conversion de 70%, un autre plus rare de 90%), D3 (avis contradictoires sur les capacités de synthèses via le soleil, et l'éventuel filet de sécurité de l'apport alimentaire (voir avis Zsofia Clemens, difficile à évaluer)), K2 (selon état microbiote, notamment, attention antibiotiques. Le natto en fournit, mais plutôt ménaquinone MK7, pas très bien connue (aussi efficace que la MK4 ?)), B2 (si polymorphisme du gène MTHFR, notamment), B3 (historiquement, mais semble ok si fruits et légumes secs et levures), biotine (le foie et éventuellement autres abats, ainsi que les oeufs sont gros pourvoyeurs, le reste semble beaucoup plus faible sauf peut-être certaines levures, et arachides), B12, mais est connue.
Minéraux : Fer, Calcium, Zinc, Iode, Sélénium (ces risques-là sont mieux connus, et souvent cités).
Divers : Choline (les personnes ne consommant pas d’œufs n'ont généralement pas les apports recommandés, les abats apportent aussi beaucoup, les autres produits animaux aident dans une moindre mesure, les quantités trouvées dans les légumineuses semblent insuffisantes. Impliquée notamment dans des maladies du foie. Synthèse endogène dépendante de l’enzyme phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT), attention aux polymorphismes MTHFD1 G1958A, rs12325817 et rs7946), carnosine.
Coenzyme Q10 (toutes ses fonctions sont encore mal connues, avis contradictoires sur son rôle antioxydant mais essentielle pour le fonctionnement mitochondrial, probablement pour la fonction cardiaque. Pas d'apport recommandé officiel, mais 10mg/j suggérés. Semblent difficiles à atteindre avec uniquement des végétaux).

Sur l'AA : Do you have arachiphobia ?
https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog … achiphobia

Total serum cholesterol levels and suicide attempts in child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients
Teresa Plana, R. Gracia, I. Méndez, L. Pintor, L. Lazaro, J. Castro-Fornieles
European child and adolescent psychiatry, 2010

Pourrait expliquer des mécanismes pour une causalité expliquant la corrélation dépression/végétarisme ?
https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog … 1_AlKWijYI

Meléndez-Hevia E1, De Paz-Lugo P, Cornish-Bowden A, Cárdenas ML.
A weak link in metabolism: the metabolic capacity for glycine biosynthesis does not satisfy the need for collagen synthesis.
J Biosci. 2009

Usual Choline Intakes Are Associated with Egg and protein Food Consumption in the United States
Wallace & Fulgoni
Nutrients, 2017.

The sunshine vitamin? Really? The true cause of vitamin D deficiency. Five practicable tips.
Zsofia Clemens
https://www.paleomedicina.com/en/vitami … deficiency

Une liste intéressante d'études dans ce papier (malgré un gros WTF dans les définitions). Etudes montrant diverses carences (mais nutriments assez classiques). Voir PDF.
Vegetarianism and veganism: not only benefits but also gaps. A review
https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q … PSoR8YFEKu


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#108 22-03-2019 16:39:51

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

Durée du régime suivi.

Investigation of lifestyle choices of individuals following a vegan diet for health and ethical reasons
Cynthia Radnitz et al.
Appetite, 2015
https://kundoc.com/pdf-investigation-of … r-hea.html

Régime suivi depuis 5,5 à 8 ans.
Age moyen : 36 ans.


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#109 24-04-2019 15:33:39

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

Convertibilité du béta-carotène en vitamine A.

Single nucleotide polymorphisms upstream from the β-carotene 15,15'-monoxygenase gene influence provitamin A conversion efficiency in female volunteers.
Lietz et al., 2012.
Article complet ici : https://watermark.silverchair.com/161s. … tB6IQ1NuxI


However,b-carotene conversion efficiency during absorptionvaries widely from person to person, even within studies that wereconducted in relatively homogeneous groups (6–10). Indeed, indouble-tracer studies, 27–45% of volunteers have been classifiedas poor responders (8–10).

Les 5 études citées :

(6) Low and high responders topharmacological doses of beta-carotene: proportion in the population,mechanisms involved and consequences on beta-carotene metabolism.
Borel et al. 1998
79 sujets
http://www.jlr.org/content/39/11/2250.full.pdf

the  ability  to  respond  to  b-carotene  is  highly  variable,  but  there  is  probably  a  very  small  proportion  of  true non-responders  to  pharmacological  doses  of  b-carotene  in the healthy population. This variability is apparently mainly due to interindividual differences in the efficiency of intestinal  absorption  of  b-carotene  and  in  chylomicron  metabolism.

(7) The challenge to reach nutritional adequacy for vitamin A:b-carotenebioavailability and conversion—evidence in humans
Marjorie J Haskell, 2012
Texte complet : https://watermark.silverchair.com/1193s … N4NhjdDQ74

The absorption of b-carotene from plant sources ranges from 5% to 65% in humans. Vitamin A equivalency ratios for b-carotene to vitamin A from plant sources rangefrom 3.8:1 to 28:1, by weight.

(8) Variability in conversion of Beta-carotene to vitamin A in men as measured by using a double-tracer study design
Sabrina J Hickenbottom
Article complet ici : https://pubag.nal.usda.gov/download/8658/PDF

We dosed 11 healthy men [...] Only  6  of  11men had  sufficient  plasma  concentrations  of  D6-caroteneand D3retinol that we could measure. The mean absorption ofD6-carotene in these 6 subjects was 4.097±1.208%, and themean conversion ratio was 0.0540±0.0128 mol retinol to 1 mol-carotene.Conclusion:The  vitamin  A  activity  of  Beta-carotene,  even  whenmeasured  under  controlled  conditions,  can  be  surprisingly  lowand variable.


(9) Variability of the conversion of b-carotene to vitamin A in women measured by using a double-tracer study design
Yumei Lin et al.
Article complet ici : https://watermark.silverchair.com/1545. … 4ZmpsKgBAQ

Eleven  healthy  women [...] However, only  6  ofthe 11 subjects had plasma D6b-carotene and D3retinol concentra-tions that we could measure. The mean absorption of D6b-carotenein these 6 subjects was 6.1±0.02% and their conversion ratio was1.47±0.49 mol D3retinol to 1 mol D6b-carotene. The remain-ing 5 subjects were low responders with ≤0.01% absorption anda mean conversion ratio of 0.014±0.004 mol D3retinol to 1 molD6b-carotene.

(10)
b-Carotene – vitamin A equivalence in Chinese adults assessed byan isotope dilution technique
Zhixu Wang et al., 2004
Article complet : https://www.cambridge.org/core/services … hnique.pdf

The volunteers(nine males and six females) [...] Four of the subjects exhibitedb-carotene to vitamin A conversion factors of.29·0:1 on a molar basis and were termed ‘poor converters’. In the eleven normal converters (seven males and fourfemales),  the calculated  conversion  factors ofb-carotene  to  retinol ranged  from 2·0:1 to  12·2:1 with  an average  of 4·8  (SD2·8):1 on  amolar basis, and from 3·8:1 to 22·8:1 with an average of 9·1 (SD5·3):1 on a weight basis.

---
Autres études
---

Review. Bioequivalence of β-carotene and retinol
David I Thurnham
Article complet : https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf … /jsfa.2647
Ici, le béta-carotène alimentaire ne semble pas efficace, seul le béta-carotène pur semble induire une réponse en rétinol, et là encore, un taux de réponse très variable selon les individus.

One furtherpiece of information was available and that was thatthere  were  some  very  large  differences  in  individualresponses to theβ-carotene supplement, varying from0.2  to  1.4μmol L−1 [...] There  was no  change  in  plasma β-carotene  concentrations  inresponse to the carrots but theβ-carotene supplied asa  supplement  was  more  bioavailable and  the  six-  toseven-fold variability in response was a little surprising.

-

La conversion diminue avec la dose de Beta Carotène.
β-Carotene Conversion to Vitamin A Decreases As the Dietary Dose Increases in Humans
Novotny et al., 2010.
https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/140/5/915/4689046

The plasma AUC for ROH-d4 increased 36% from the 20-mg dose to the 40-mg dose. These results establish that, in humans, β-carotene conversion to vitamin A decreases as the dietary dose increases.


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#110 18-05-2019 20:06:42

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

Les conséquences des régimes végétariens et végétaliens pendant la grossesse et la lactation, sur la femme enceinte, le fœtus, le nouveau-né et le nourrisson A partir d’une revue de la littérature
Lydia El Ayoubi, 2016
https://dumas.ccsd.cnrs.fr/dumas-01412358/document


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#111 22-05-2019 16:42:32

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

Preventive Medicine. 2017
Vegetarian diet and all-cause mortality: Evidence from a large population-based Australian cohort - the 45 and Up Study.
Mihrshahi S1, Ding D2, Gale J2, Allman-Farinelli M3, Banks E4, Bauman AE2.


The vegetarian diet is thought to have health benefits including reductions in type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. Evidence to date suggests that vegetarians tend to have lower mortality rates when compared with non-vegetarians, but most studies are not population-based and other healthy lifestyle factors may have confounded apparent protective effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between categories of vegetarian diet (including complete, semi and pesco-vegetarian) and all-cause mortality in a large population-based Australian cohort. The 45 and Up Study is a cohort study of 267,180 men and women aged ≥45years in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Vegetarian diet status was assessed by baseline questionnaire and participants were categorized into complete vegetarians, semi-vegetarians (eat meat≤once/week), pesco-vegetarians and regular meat eaters. All-cause mortality was determined by linked registry data to mid-2014. Cox proportional hazards models quantified the association between vegetarian diet and all-cause mortality adjusting for a range of potential confounding factors. Among 243,096 participants (mean age: 62.3years, 46.7% men) there were 16,836 deaths over a mean 6.1years of follow-up. Following extensive adjustment for potential confounding factors there was no significant difference in all-cause mortality for vegetarians versus non-vegetarians [HR=1.16 (95% CI 0.93-1.45)]. There was also no significant difference in mortality risk between pesco-vegetarians [HR=0.79 (95% CI 0.59-1.06)] or semi-vegetarians [HR=1.12 (95% CI 0.96-1.31)] versus regular meat eaters. We found no evidence that following a vegetarian diet, semi-vegetarian diet or a pesco-vegetarian diet has an independent protective effect on all-cause mortality.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2016
Mortality in vegetarians and comparable nonvegetarians in the United Kingdom.
Appleby PN1, Crowe FL1, Bradbury KE1, Travis RC1, Key TJ2.

Vegetarians and others who do not eat meat have been observed to have lower incidence rates than meat eaters of some chronic diseases, but it is unclear whether this translates into lower mortality.
OBJECTIVE:

The purpose of this study was to describe mortality in vegetarians and comparable nonvegetarians in a large United Kingdom cohort.
DESIGN:

The study involved a pooled analysis of data from 2 prospective studies that included 60,310 persons living in the United Kingdom, comprising 18,431 regular meat eaters (who ate meat ≥5 times/wk on average), 13,039 low (less-frequent) meat eaters, 8516 fish eaters (who ate fish but not meat), and 20,324 vegetarians (including 2228 vegans who did not eat any animal foods). Mortality by diet group for each of 18 common causes of death was estimated with the use of Cox proportional hazards models.
RESULTS:

There were 5294 deaths before age 90 in >1 million y of follow-up. There was no significant difference in overall (all-cause) mortality between the diet groups: HRs in low meat eaters, fish eaters, and vegetarians compared with regular meat eaters were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.00), 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.06), and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.10), respectively; P-heterogeneity of risks = 0.082. There were significant differences in risk compared with regular meat eaters for deaths from circulatory disease [higher in fish eaters (HR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.46)]; malignant cancer [lower in fish eaters (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.97)], including pancreatic cancer [lower in low meat eaters and vegetarians (HR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.86 and HR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.82, respectively)] and cancers of the lymphatic/hematopoietic tissue [lower in vegetarians (HR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.79)]; respiratory disease [lower in low meat eaters (HR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.92)]; and all other causes [lower in low meat eaters (HR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.99)]. Further adjustment for body mass index left these associations largely unchanged.
CONCLUSIONS:
United Kingdom-based vegetarians and comparable nonvegetarians have similar all-cause mortality. Differences found for specific causes of death merit further investigation.


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