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#76 08-10-2018 21:14:16

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

Dossier d'anatomie comparée Homme/Singes de Futura sciences
https://www.futura-sciences.com/science … 94/page/7/

La surface de l'émail dentaire a été aussi étudiée en microscopie électronique à balayage (MEB) dans le but de retrouver des traces d'usure et d'approcher ainsi le régime alimentaire des hominidés. Les australopithèques semblaient être essentiellement frugivores alors que pour Homo on a quelque chose d'intermédiaire entre la surface d'usure des dents d'une hyène (carnivore) et d'un porc (omnivore).


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#77 09-10-2018 22:09:41

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

Florence Burgat

L'Humanité carnivore
https://books.google.fr/books?id=2Hr5DQ … at&f=false

Florence Burgat,
L’Humanité carnivore
Paris, Le Seuil, 2017, 470 p., bibl., index.
parFrançoise Armengaud
https://www.cairn.info/revue-l-homme-20 … ge-166.htm


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#78 09-10-2018 22:27:47

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

Depressive Symptoms and Vegetarian Diets: Results from the Constances Cohort.
Matta J et al, 2018
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30404246

Depressive symptoms were associated with pesco-vegetarian and lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets in multivariable analyses (Odds-Ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.43 [1.19⁻1.72] and 1.36 [1.09⁻1.70], respectively), especially in case of low legumes intake (p for interaction < 0.0001), as well as with the exclusion of any food group (e.g., 1.37 [1.24⁻1.52], 1.40 [1.31⁻1.50], 1.71 [1.49⁻1.97] for meat, fish and vegetables exclusion, respectively). Regardless of food type, the Odds-Ratio of depressive symptoms gradually increased with the number of excluded food groups (p for trend < 0.0001). Depressive symptoms are associated with the exclusion of any food group from the diet, including but not restricted to animal products.

Vegetarian diets and depressive symptoms among men
JR Hibbeln, K Northstone, J Evans, J Golding - Journal of affective …, 2018 - Elsevier
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a … 2716323916

Vegetarianism, depression, and the five factor model of personality
Catherine A. Forestell & John B. Nezlek
Pages 246-259 | Published online: 29 Mar 2018
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10. … 18.1455675

Although vegetarians and semi-vegetarians were more open to new experiences, they were more neurotic and depressed than omnivores.

Adhering to a vegetarian diet may create a greater risk of depressive symptoms in the elderly male Chinese population
LI Xiu-de, H CAO, S XIE, K LI, F TAO, L YANG… - Journal of affective disorders, 2018 - Elsevier
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a … 2718309911

Vegetarian diet as a risk factor for depression
Azize Asanova, 2017
https://e-medjournal.com/index.php/psp/article/view/90

Vegetarian diet and mental disorders: results from a representative community survey
Johannes Michalak, Xiao Chi Zhang, Frank Jacobi, 2012
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3466124/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articl … 8-9-67.pdf

Vegetarian diets are associated with healthy mood states: a cross-sectional study in Seventh Day Adventist adults
Bonnie L Beezhold, Carol S Johnston, and Deanna R Daigle, 2010
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articl … ort=reader

Characteristics of vegetarian adolescents in a multiethnic urban population.
Perry CL1, Mcguire MT, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M.

The vegetarians were more likely than nonvegetarians to be female, not black, weight- and body-conscious, dissatisfied with their bodies, and involved in a variety of healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors. Vegetarians more often reported having been told by a physician that they had an eating disorder and were more likely to have contemplated and attempted suicide. Vegetarian males were found to be an especially high risk group for unhealthy weight control practices. Few ethnic group differences among vegetarians were noted. Adolescents who did not eat chicken and fish were at lower risk than those who also ate chicken and fish.
CONCLUSIONS:

Adolescent vegetarians are at greater risk than others for involvement in unhealthy and extreme weight control behaviors. Vegetarian males are at particularly high risk. Vegetarianism among adolescents may therefore be a signal for preventive intervention. Adolescents who choose to become vegetarians may also need to learn how to healthfully do so.

How does the health and well-being of young Australian vegetarian and semi-vegetarian women compare with non-vegetarians?
Baines S1, Powers J, Brown WJ., 2007
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17411462

Semi-vegetarians and vegetarians had poorer mental health, with 21-22% reporting depression compared with 15% of non-vegetarians (P < 0.001). Low iron levels and menstrual symptoms were also more common in both vegetarian groups. Vegetarian and semi-vegetarian women were more likely to consult alternative health practitioners and semi-vegetarians reported taking more prescription and non-prescription medications. Compared with non-vegetarians, semi-vegetarians were less likely and vegetarians much less likely to be taking the oral contraceptive pill.
CONCLUSION:

The levels of physical activity and body mass indices of the vegetarian and semi-vegetarian women suggest they are healthier than non-vegetarians. However, the greater reports of menstrual problems and the poorer mental health of these young women may be of clinical significance.

Association of Western and traditional diets with depression and anxiety in women.
Jacka FN1, Pasco JA, Mykletun A, Williams LJ, Hodge AM, O'Reilly SL, Nicholson GC, Kotowicz MA, Berk M., 2010
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20048020

The Connection Between Anxiety, Depression + Omega Fats
https://thechalkboardmag.com/australian … -disorders

Fatigue, nervosité, dépression : "Etre végane, une des expériences les plus difficiles de ma vie"
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=941wzCr8Jdk


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#79 10-10-2018 20:36:53

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

What is the role of meat in a healthy diet?
David M Klurfeld
Animal Frontiers, Volume 8, Issue 3, 20 August 2018, Pages 5–10, https://doi.org/10.1093/af/vfy009
Published:
07 July 2018
https://academic.oup.com/af/article/8/3/5/5048762


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#80 15-10-2018 19:30:19

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Vidéo : David Olivier, Faut-il empêcher les lions de tuer les gazelles.
Commentaires intéressants.

https://www.facebook.com/iamvegan.tv/vi … tion=group


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#81 19-10-2018 09:18:31

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Google lance une campagne pro-vegan dans le métro new-yorkais
par Vegan France · 30 septembre 2018
http://www.vegan-france.fr/blog/google- … XXlNnDb2RQ

À la découverte du fromage végétal. Quand gastronomie rime avec éthique!
par Sylvain Bernière · 29 août 2018
http://www.vegan-france.fr/blog/a-la-de … UC7Mj05A4c


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#82 22-10-2018 09:10:25

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Does Meat Rot In Your Colon? No. What Does? Beans, Grains, and Vegetables!
http://www.gnolls.org/1444/does-meat-ro … egetables/


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#83 03-11-2018 15:54:29

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#84 05-11-2018 18:49:06

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Article très complet sur la possibilité que l'agriculture végétale ne soit pas si exempte que ça de souffrance animale.

Les végans croient qu’un régime végétalien permet de manger sans tuer ou faire souffrir des animaux. C’est faux !
https://www.jfdumas.fr/Les-vegans-croie … m#comments

Fausse viande ou vrai élevage ?
http://www.inra.fr/Chercheurs-etudiants … ai-elevage

D'un ancien végan :
Are vegan diets bad for fitness?
https://personaltrainers.london/article … 1ND7BvqrXI


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#85 06-11-2018 08:20:41

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

Durée de la période végétarienne / végane lors des études.

Ici, le critère est d'être végan depuis plus d'un an et d'être un adulte :
Diet-Dependent Net Endogenous Acid Load of Vegan Diets in Relation to Food Groups and Bone Health-Related Nutrients: Results from the German Vegan Study
Ströhle A. · Waldmann A. · Koschizke J.· Leitzmann C.· Hahn A, 2011
https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/331572

Data from healthy men (n = 67) and women (n = 87), aged 21–75 years, who fulfilled the study criteria (vegan diet for ≧1 year prior to study start; age ≧18 years, and no pregnancy/childbirth during the last 12 months) were included in the analysis. NEAP values were calculated from diet composition using two models: one based on the protein/potassium quotient and another taking into account an anthropometry-based loss of urinary organic anions. Results:Mean daily intakes of phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium and vitamin C were above, and vitamin D and calcium below Dietary Reference Intake (DRI).

Santé osseuse des végétariens
Long-Term Vegetarian Diet and Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Taiwanese Women
JF Chiu et al., 1997
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/PL00005812

Long-term practitioners of vegan vegetarian were found to be at a higher risk of exceeding lumbar spine fracture threshold (adjusted odds ratio = 2.48, 95% confidence interval = 1.03–5.96) and of being classified as having osteopenia of the femoral neck (3.94, 1.21–12.82). Identification of effective nutrition supplements may be necessary to improve BMD levels and to reduce the risk of osteoporosis among long-term female vegetarians.

Protein intake and bone health: the influence of belief systems on the conduct of nutritional science
Robert P Heaney, 2001
https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/73/1/5/4729610

Since our study was reported, an impressive body of literature has proven that protein tends to have a positive effect on bone overall. Two randomized controlled trials showed that increased protein intake dramatically improved outcomes after hip fracture (3, 4), and subsequent work showed that protein supplements reduce bone loss at the contralateral hip in patients with upper femoral fracture (5, 6). The most likely explanation is a protein-induced increase in insulin-like growth factor I (7), which is known to be osteotrophic.

Comparative fracture risk in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in EPIC-Oxford
P Appleby, A Roddam, N Allen & T Key, 2007
https://www.nature.com/articles/1602659

Over an average of 5.2 years of follow-up, 343 men and 1555 women reported one or more fractures. Compared with meat eaters, fracture incidence rate ratios in men and women combined adjusted for sex, age and non-dietary factors were 1.01 (95% CI 0.88–1.17) for fish eaters, 1.00 (0.89–1.13) for vegetarians and 1.30 (1.02–1.66) for vegans. After further adjustment for dietary energy and calcium intake the incidence rate ratio among vegans compared with meat eaters was 1.15 (0.89–1.49). Among subjects consuming at least 525 mg/day calcium the corresponding incidence rate ratios were 1.05 (0.90–1.21) for fish eaters, 1.02 (0.90–1.15) for vegetarians and 1.00 (0.69–1.44) for vegans.

A Case of Nutritional Osteomalacia in Young Adult Male
Choong-Kyun Noh et al., 2013
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articl … FsrYdypp7E

Vitamin D is an important hormone that can be a role of bone and calcium metabolism in the human organ. Thus, vitamin D deficiency could contribute to the severity of metabolic bone disease. The osteomalacia, one of the metabolic bone diseases, is the softening of the bones caused by defective bone mineralization secondary to inadequate amounts of available phosphorus and calcium. We experienced a case of osteomalacia presented with walking disturbance, 30 year-old young aged man, caused by vitamin D deficiency due to strict vegetarian diet and lack of sunlight exposures.


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#86 06-11-2018 09:00:32

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Considerations in Planning Vegan Diets: Children
VIRGINIA MESSINA et al., 2001
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a … 2301001675

Special attention should be given to dietary practices that enhance absorption of zinc and iron from plant foods. Further, good sources of the ϖ-3 fatty acid linolenic acid should be emphasized to enhance synthesis of the long-chain fatty acid docosahexanoic acid. Dietetics professionals who counsel vegan families should help parents identify good sources of vitamin B-12, riboflavin, zinc, calcium and, if sun exposure is not adequate, vitamin D. This should not be problematic, due to the growing number and availability of fortified vegan foods that can help children meet all nutrient needs. Therefore, with appropriate food choices, vegan diets can be adequate for children at all ages.

Intéressant que cette étude repose sur la conversion de l'ALA, alors que l'on sait depuis que celle-ci est très problématique :

Ici, le taux de conversion diminue avec le temps si on tente une complémentation avec de fortes doses d'ALA :

Effect of 1‐ and 2‐Month High‐Dose Alpha‐Linolenic Acid Treatment on 13C‐Labeled Alpha‐Linolenic Acid Incorporation and Conversion in Healthy Subjects
Marc Pignitter et al., 2018
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/ful … .201800271

One of the more widely accepted hypotheses is that long‐term high intake of ALA might inhibit its conversion to EPA.13 This hypothesis could be confirmed by the results obtained from the current study.[...]
    previous studies reported rather low conversion of ALA to DHA in plasma and erythrocytes, ranging from 0 to 3.8% [...]
    This decrease in 13C‐DHA concentration after long‐term consumption of high amounts of ALA might be attributed to competitive substrate inhibition.49 It is well known that Δ6‐desaturase catalyzes the conversion of ALA to stearidonic acid, but also the desaturation of tetracosapentaenoic to tetracosahexaenoic acid.44 Both reactions yield DHA. The competition between ALA and tetracosapentaenoic acid for Δ6‐desaturase activity might explain the reduced DHA formation under conditions of ALA excess.

Past and Present Insights on Alpha-linolenic Acid and the Omega-3 Fatty Acid Family
Aliza H. Stark et al., 2015
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10. … jczMcJTR2M


Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is the parent essential fatty acid of the omega-3 family. This family includes docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which has been conserved in neural signaling systems in the cephalopods, fish, amphibian, reptiles, birds, mammals, primates, and humans. This extreme conservation, in spite of wide genomic changes of over 500 million years, testifies to the uniqueness of this molecule in the brain and affirms the importance of omega-3 fatty acids.[...]
    Unlike humans, rats and mice can readily convert ALA to EPA and DHA

Des résultats intéressants mais transitoires et un peu étonnants au vu de la faible augmentation de l'EPA avec de l'huile de shia :

Modification of Docosahexaenoic Acid Composition of Milk from Nursing Women Who Received Alpha Linolenic Acid from Chia Oil during Gestation and Nursing
Rodrigo Valenzuela et al., 2015
https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/7/8/5289/htm

The chia group, compared to the control group, showed (i) a significant increase in ALA ingestion and a significant reduction of linoleic acid (LA) ingestion, no showing modification of arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA; (ii) a significant increase of erythrocyte ALA and EPA and a reduction of LA. AA and DHA were not modified; (iii) a increased milk content of ALA during the six months of nursing, whereas LA showed a decrease. AA and EPA were not modified, however DHA increased only during the first three months of nursing. Consumption of chia oil during the last trimester of pregnancy and the first three months of nursing transiently increases the milk content of DHA.


Ici, seulement 6mg de DHA dans le groupe huile de poisson. Les résultats ne donnent pas d'élévation des taux de DHA dans le groupe végétal, une élévation sensiblement moindre d'EPA que dans le groupe poisson, mais l'étude conclut quand même que la conversion se fait bien :

Flaxseed oil and fish-oil capsule consumption alters human red blood cell n–3 fatty acid composition: a multiple-dosing trial comparing 2 sources of n–3 fatty acid
Gwendolyn Barcelo-Coblijn et al., 2008.
Problème avec le lien de l'étude complète. Lien de l'abstract : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18779299

Conversion of a-linolenic acid in humans is influenced by the absolute amounts of a-linolenic acid and linoleic acid in the diet and not by their ratio
Petra LL Goyens et al., 2006
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/do … 1&type=pdf

Compared with the control group, ALA incorporation into phospholipids increased by 3.6% in the low-LA group (P=0.012) and decreased by 8.0% in the high-ALA group (P=
    0.001). In absolute amounts, it increased by 34.3 mg (P=0.020) in the low-LA group but hardly changed in the high-ALA group. Nearly all ALA from the plasma phospholipid pool was converted into eicosapentaenoic acid. Conversion of eicosapentaenoic acid into docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid hardly changed in the 3 groups and was 0.1% of dietary ALA.

Distribution, interconversion, and dose response of n−3 fatty acids in humans
Linda M Arterburn, Eileen Bailey Hall, Harry Oken, 2006
https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/8 … 7S/4633217

Limited storage of the n−3 fatty acids in adipose tissue suggests that a continued dietary supply is needed. A large proportion of dietary α-linolenic acid (ALA) is oxidized, and because of limited interconversion of n−3 fatty acids in humans, ALA supplementation does not result in appreciable accumulation of long-chain n−3 fatty acids in plasma. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) but not DHA concentrations in plasma increase in response to dietary EPA. Dietary DHA results in a dose-dependent, saturable increase in plasma DHA concentrations and modest increases in EPA concentrations. Plasma DHA concentrations equilibrate in approximately 1 mo and then remain at steady state throughout supplementation. DHA doses of ≈2 g/d result in a near maximal plasma response. Both dietary DHA and EPA reduce plasma arachidonic acid concentrations. Tissue contents of DHA and EPA also increase in response to supplementation with these fatty acids. Human milk contents of DHA are dependent on diet, and infant DHA concentrations are determined by their dietary intake of this fatty acid. We conclude that the most predictable way to increase a specific long-chain n−3 fatty acid in plasma, tissues, or human milk is to supplement with the fatty acid of interest.

Une supplémentation en huile de lin détériore ici le ratio Acide Arachidonique / EPA :

Effect of randomized supplementation with high dose olive, flax or fish oil on serum phospholipid fatty acid levels in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Young, GS et al., 2005
https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00 … 900582.pdf

Flax oil supplementation resulted in an increase in alpha-LNA and a slight decrease in the ratio of AA/EPA, while fish oil supplementation resulted in increases in EPA, DHA and total omega-3 fatty acids and a decrease in the AA/EPA ratio to values seen in the Japanese population.

Conversion of α-linolenic acid to longer-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human adults
Graham C. BURDGE, Philip C. CALDER, 2005
https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00900584/document

Increasing αLNA intake for a period of weeks to months results in an increase in the proportion of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) in plasma lipids, in erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets and in breast milk but there is no increase in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA;22:6n-3), which may even decline in some pools at high α LNA intakes.



Long-chain conversion of [13C] linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid in response to marked changes in their dietary intake in men
Nahed Hussein et al., 2005
http://www.jlr.org/content/46/2/269.full.pdf

Our finding of a substantial increase in EPA but no change in DHA in membrane phospholipids is consistent with most (11, 14, 48, 49) but not all (50, 51) previous re-
    ports of ALA supplementation in adults. The highest levels of enrichment of EPA are usually achieved at the lower intakes of FXO (48), suggesting that high levels of ALA inhibit its conversion to EPA. Indeed, the inverse relationship between dietary ALA and the DHA content of membrane phospholipids (42) suggests that increased ALA and/or EPA may displace DHA. In a recent 6 month study with 9.5 g of ALA per day, although EPA increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, DHA concentration decreased (49). The ALA/LA ratio rather than the absolute amount of ALA has been suggested to regulate the conversion to EPA (52), consistent with the report that dou-bling the intake of ALA at a constant dietary ALA/LA value had no additional influence on platelet EPA content

Méta-analyse très intéressante, on a des taux très variables selon les méthodes :

a-Linolenic acid metabolism in men and women: nutritional and biological implications
Graham Burdge, 2004
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/8bd2/f … eb8a88.pdf

Overall, the capacity for conversion of a-LNA to DHA differs markedly between men and women. This has important implications for their nutritional requirements for n-3 PUFAs. It is possible that demands for DHA by individual tissues in men are relatively modest, possibly due to efficient recycling, and can be met by the diet or the low level of a-LNA conversion. Nevertheless, men with a poor DHA intake together with higher partition-ing of fatty acids towards b-oxidation would be at greater risk of marginal DHA status than women. There is evidence which suggests oestrogen-mediated upregulation of conversion of a-LNA to DHA in women


Alpha-linolenic acid supplementation during human pregnancy does not effect cognitive functioning
R.H.M. de Groot et al., 2003
http://digitalarchive.maastrichtunivers … 7bc/ASSET1

ALA supplementation hardly affected the maternal DHA status and no significant differences were found in cognitive
    performance between the two groups. This indicates that ALA supplementation during pregnancy does not affect cognitive
    performance during and 32 weeks after gestation.

Efficiency of conversion of alpha-linolenic acid to long chain n-3 fatty acids in man.
Brenna JT., 2002
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11844977

   

Studies generally agree that whole body conversion of 18:3n-3 to 22:6n-3 is below 5% in humans, and depends on the concentration of n-6 fatty acids and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet. Complete oxidation of dietary 18:3n-3 to CO2 accounts for about 25% of 18:3n-3 in the first 24 h, reaching 60% by 7 days. Much of the remaining 18:3n-3 serves as a source of acetate for synthesis of saturates and monounsaturates, with very little stored as 18:3n-3. In term and preterm infants, studies show wide variability in the plasma kinetics of 13C n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids after 13C-18:3n-3 dosing, suggesting wide variability among human infants in the development of biosynthetic capability to convert 18:3n-3 to 22:6n3. Tracer studies show that humans of all ages can perform the conversion of 18:3n-3 to 22:6n3. Further studies are required to establish quantitatively the partitioning of dietary 18:3n-3 among metabolic pathways and the influence of other dietary components and of physiological states on these processes.

Les femmes semblent convertir mieux que les hommes, mais l'étude souligne aussi les différences interpersonnelles, et les résultats sont très atypiques par rapport à l'ensemble des études plus récentes :

Conversion of α-linolenic acid to eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in young women
Graham C. Burge, Stephen A. Wootton, 2002.
https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals … DF076DBC74

Estimated net fractional ALNA inter-conversion was EPA 21 %, DPA 6 % and DHA 9 %. [...] Comparison with previous studies suggests that women may possess a greater capacity for ALNA conversion than men. Such metabolic capacity may be important for meeting the demands of the fetus and neonate for DHA during pregnancy and lactation. Differences in DHA status between women both in the non-pregnant state and in pregnancy may reflect variations in metabolic capacity for DHA synthesis.

Une idée du taux de conversion possible de l'ALA en DHA, et le problème d'une alimentation déséquilibrée en faveur des oméga 6, mais attention, on parle ici d'un taux élevé de saturés :

Can adults adequately convert alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) to eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3)?
Gester H., 1998
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9637947

The use of ALA labelled with radioisotopes suggested that with a background diet high in saturated fat conversion to long-chain metabolites is approximately 6% for EPA and 3.8% for DHA. With a diet rich in n-6 PUFA, conversion is reduced by 40 to 50%. It is thus reasonable to observe an n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio not exceeding 4-6.


Supplementation with an algae source of docosahexaenoic acid increases (n-3) fatty acid status and alters selected risk factors for heart disease in vegetarian subjects.
Conquer JA1, Holub BJ. (1996)

Healthy vegetarians (12 male, 12 female) consumed nine capsules daily of either DHA (1.62 g/d) or corn oil for 6 wk. Consumption of DHA capsules increased DHA levels in serum phospholipid by 246% (from 2.4 to 8.3 g/100 g fatty acids) and in platelet phospholipid by 225% (from 1.2 to 3.9 g/100 g fatty acids). EPA levels increased in serum phospholipid by 117% (from 0.57 to 1.3 g/100 g fatty acids) and in platelet phospholipid by 176% (0.21 to 0.58 g/100 g fatty acids) via metabolic retroconversion; the estimated extent of DHA retroconversion to EPA was 11.3 and 12.0%, based on the serum and platelet analyses, respectively. Arachidonic acid [AA; 20:4(n-6)] levels in serum and platelet phospholipids decreased moderately during the trial period (DHA group) as did both docosapentaenoic acids [22:5(n-6) and 22:5(n-3)].


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#87 06-11-2018 21:00:49

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

Sur le gène FADS2 :
Positive Selection on a Regulatory Insertion–Deletion Polymorphism in FADS2 Influences Apparent Endogenous Synthesis of Arachidonic Acid
Kumar S. D. Kothapalli et al., 2016
https://academic.oup.com/mbe/article/33/7/1726/2578764

Analysis using 1000 Genomes Project data confirmed our observation, revealing a global I/I genotype of 70% in South Asians, 53% in Africans, 29% in East Asians, and 17% in Europeans. Tests based on population divergence, site frequency spectrum, and long-range haplotype consistently point to positive selection encompassing rs66698963 in South Asian, African, and some East Asian populations. Basal plasma phospholipid arachidonic acid (ARA) status was 8% greater in I/I compared with D/D individuals. The biochemical pathway product–precursor difference, ARA minus linoleic acid, was 31% and 13% greater for I/I and I/D compared with D/D, respectively. This study is consistent with previous in vitro data suggesting that the insertion allele enhances n-6 LCPUFA synthesis and may confer an adaptive advantage in South Asians because of the traditional plant-based diet practice.


L'illusion (relative) de nos véritables besoins nutritionnels
13 sept. 2018
https://brunochabanas.blogspot.com/2018 … -HkPOKNw2w

Prenons le cas de la vitamine D (cholécalciférol, la D3) : une étude clinique française [1] chez 39 volontaires sains montre que son absorption peut varier d'un facteur 34 selon les individus ! Et cette dispersion n'est pas reliée à des statuts initiaux différents (donc à une éventuelle régulation des mécanismes d'absorption). Un des graphiques tiré de cette étude montre l'évolution sur 8 heures des concentrations en D3 des chylomicrons après un apport de 200k UI. Les chylomicrons sont des lipoprotéines qui se forment en période de digestion et qui transportent les lipides et composés liposolubles comme la vitamine D, des intestins au foie. La courbe au ras des pâquerettes est la réponse du plus mauvais absorbeur, et la courbe qui culmine celle du meilleur absorbeur (au milieu la moyenne).

Si vous trouvez ça spectaculaire, sachez que la vitamine D n'est pas un cas particulier. La même équipe de chercheurs avait abouti à un résultat similaire un peu plus tôt pour le bêta-carotène, la plus emblématique des pro-vitamines A (figure ci-dessous). C'est à l'Hôpital de la Conception à Marseille que 33 volontaires ont été nourris avec un repas identique et riche en beta-carotène (comprenant une purée de tomate standardisée à 0.4 mg de beta-carotene au 100 g). C'est à nouveau les taux de beta-carotène des chylomicrons post-prandiaux qui ont été mesurés puisque c'est un composé liposoluble. Le coefficient de variation (CV, qui est le rapport de l'écart-type sur la moyenne) de la "réponse" en terme de concentration en beta-carotène est de 105% (alors qu'il était de 45% pour la vitamine D). Autrement dit, c'est encore pire : il y a une encore plus forte hétérogénéité d'absorption du beta-carotène...


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#88 06-11-2018 21:56:04

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

Gabrielle Bussard, ex végan
https://www.facebook.com/lemythevegetar … __tn__=K-R

http://www.gabriellebussard.ch/mangez-s … _8tIHKeDRo


Article très complet sur les acides gras saturés :
Actualités sur le front des graisses alimentaires
19 octobre 2018, Gabrielle Bussard
http://www.gabriellebussard.ch/actualit … mentaires/


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#89 06-11-2018 23:41:44

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

Impact of iodine deficiency on thyroid function in vegan siblings
Agnieszka Brandt, Michal Ajzensztejn, Sophia Sakka, Moira Cheung & Tony Hulse
https://www.endocrine-abstracts.org/ea/0058/ea0058p042

Toddler's Paralysis: An Acute Case of Leg Stiffening in a Previously Healthy 2-Year-Old
Kahne, Kimberly Renee, MD; Tay, Ee Tein, MD
https://journals.lww.com/pec-online/Abs … -sxSnyVChQ

Cerebral Atrophy in a Vitamin B12-deficient Infant of a Vegetarian Mother
Celebi Kocaoglu et al., 2014
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4216972/

Neuroregression in an infant: A rare cause
P Subramani, CG Saranya, GM Chand, RS Narayani, S James, PN Vinoth, 2015
https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajchh/ … iew/120204

Neuroregression in infants has diverse aetiologies, and vitamin B12 deficiency is a rare one. Infantile vitamin B12 deficiency is usually secondary to maternal pernicious anaemia or maternal vegetarian diet. We report a 10-month-old infant with developmental regression secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. Her mother was a strict vegetarian and the patient was exclusively breastfed. Clinical symptoms normalised after vitamin B12 supplementation.

Hematological and neurological compromise due to vitamin B12 deficit in infant of a vegetarian mother: case report
PJ Bravo et al., 2014
https://europepmc.org/abstract/med/25697251

Reticulate pigmentation associated with vitamin B12 deficiency
Amanjot K. Arora et al., 2016
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4886604/

Rare association of thin corpus callosum with infantile tremor syndrome in a 5.5-month-old infant
Chandra Madhur Sharma et al, 2015
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4611903/

Among various theories, the nutritional theory is the most accepted. Vitamin B12 deficiency has been found to be associated with ITS in many studies.[1] It is usually seen in children who are exclusively breast-fed for prolonged periods by vegetarian mothers.

Case Series of Megaloblastic Anemia due to Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Exclusively Breastfed Infants Born to Vegan Mothers in a Rural Area.
Singh, V.; Nigwekar, P.; Dhyabar, A.; Garg, A.; Vaidya, S.; Lonare, N., 2015
http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/abstract?sit … d103581342

Acute small bowel obstruction in a child with a strict raw vegan diet
Stefano Amoroso et al., 2018
https://adc.bmj.com/content/early/2018/ … 018-314910

Vitamin B12 deficiency with intrinsic factor antibodies in an infant with poor growth and developmental delay
Kathleen McNeil et al., 2014
https://academic.oup.com/pch/article/19/2/84/2647189

Death by Veganism
By NINA PLANCKMAY 21, 2007
https://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/21/opin … lanck.html

WHEN Crown Shakur died of starvation, he was 6 weeks old and weighed 3.5 pounds. His vegan parents, who fed him mainly soy milk and apple juice, were convicted in Atlanta recently of murder, involuntary manslaughter and cruelty.

My vegan diet almost killed me
By Jane Ridley, November 4, 2015
https://nypost.com/2015/11/04/my-vegan- … killed-me/

Une méta-analyse.
Is a vegetarian diet safe to follow during pregnancy? A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies
Chang Tan, Yudi Zhao & Suqing Wang, 2018
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10. … C_kkpwt7xQ

A total of 19 observational studies were identified for each of meta-analysis and narrative review. The overall estimated relation between vegetarian pregnancy and low birth weight (LBW) was marginally significant (1.27 (0.98, 1.65), P = 0.07, I2 = 0%). Asian (India/Nepal) vegetarian mothers exhibited increased risks to deliver a baby with LBW (1.33 (1.01, 1.76), P = 0.04, I2 = 0%). However, the WMD of neonatal birth weight in five studies suggested no difference between vegetarians and omnivores. Given the high heterogeneity of the included studies, lack of high-quality evidence, and limited studies included for each category, we failed to reach conclusive results regarding the risks of hypospadias, intrauterine growth retardation, maternal anemia, and gestational diabetes mellitus.


Meat Consumption During Pregnancy and Substance Misuse Among Adolescent Offspring: Stratification of TCN2 Genetic Variants
Joseph R. Hibbeln et al., 2017
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs … acer.13494

Lower prenatal meat consumption was associated with increased risks of adolescent substance misuse. Interactions between TCN2 variant status and meat intake implicate cobalamin deficiencies.


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#90 07-11-2018 12:15:20

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

‘Techno mums’ motivations towards vegetarian and vegan lifestyles.
Ariela Mortara, 2013
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260462974_Techno_mums'_motivations_towards_vegetarian_and_vegan_lifestyles

In the last few years, food related issues have become highly relevant in private and public discourses; along with the increased interest in food safety, both vegetarianism and veganism have enlarged their popularity and acceptance. The general concern toward the consumption of healthy food should be even more important for the mothers wanting to provide safe food for their children and therefore adopting alternative lifestyles such as vegetarian and vegan diets. However, the literature regarding the vegetarian and vegan choices does not focus on the motivations fostering mothers toward these lifestyles. This paper tries to fill this gap presenting the results of a study aimed at investigating the motivations underlying the adoption of vegetarian and vegan lifestyles. Such motivations emerge from the online dialogs among a very specific sample of mothers, the so called ?techno mums?.

(PDF) Techno mums’ motivations towards vegetarian and vegan lifestyles. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260462974_Techno_mums'_motivations_towards_vegetarian_and_vegan_lifestyles [accessed Nov 07 2018].


Les lipides et les acides gras
Vegan pratique L214
https://vegan-pratique.fr/nutrition/les … ides-gras/

Qu’est-ce que le DHA et l’EPA ?

Le DHA et l’EPA sont des oméga-3 dits “à longue chaîne”, à l’inverse des oméga-3 les plus courants appelés ALA. Les sources d’EPA et de DHA sont rares dans l’alimentation, que celle-ci soit végétale ou non.

Heureusement, notre organisme peut synthétiser l’EPA et le DHA à partir des oméga-3 ALA qui se trouvent dans les noix, le colza, le lin… à condition que leur apport soit suffisant.

Pour l’ANSES (Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail), l’Apport Satisfaisant (AS) est de 250 mg par jour pour le DHA (ANSES 2017, p. 16/82). Les capsules d’huile de micro-algues assurent un bon apport de DHA et d’EPA.
Il est à noter qu’une étude (O’Connell, 1989) a déjà montré que les enfants vegans, nés de mère végane, se sont développés sans problème sans pour autant consommer de DHA. Les enfants pourraient en effet fabriquer suffisamment de DHA pour être en bonne santé, mais ils peuvent quand même tirer profit d’un apport en DHA.


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#91 07-11-2018 17:19:14

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

Athlètes pas vraiment végans :

Djokovic mange du poisson. Il est précisé des poissons gras le soir, et parfois du thon le matin.

Sea O'Maley n'a été "végan" que 6 mois, et durant ces 6 mois, il mangeait en fait des oeufs.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7eAQjfZDCO0

Plant-Based Athlete Tim Shieff Admits To Eating Eggs And Fish
The former World Champion Freerunner says he's now 'come back to veganism'
https://www.plantbasednews.org/post/pla … yBYh7S-8TY


Are vegan diets bad for fitness?
https://personaltrainers.london/article … 1ND7BvqrXI


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#92 07-11-2018 18:07:29

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

100 Scientific reasons to not eat meat . . .

1.) Neu5Gc is found only in animal meat. Neu5Gc appears to have a strong link to cancer and heart disease.
Notes: Neu5Gc is not produced by the human body or our great ape ancestors (probably due to a common mutation). But Neu5Gc is almost always found in human tumors. The inflammation it causes seems to feed tumors and harden arteries.
Source: Diversity in specificity, abundance, and composition of anti-Neu5Gc antibodies in normal humans: potential implications for disease. Glycobiology. 2008 Oct;18(10):818-30.

2.) Top 15 foods for advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are all meat sourced with roasted BBQ chicken skin and fried bacon being the top.
Notes: AGEs are gerontotoxins (aka aging toxins). AGEs cause proteins to cross together causing stiffness, oxidation stress, and inflammation in muscles, brain tissue, eyes, heart, bone, red blood cells, and kidneys. Thought to contribute to muscle loss as we age.
Source: Advanced glycation end products in foods and a practical guide to their reduction in the diet. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010 Jun;110(6):911-16.e12.
Source: Does accumulation of advanced glycation end products contribute to the aging phenotype? J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2010 Sep;65(9):963-75. Epub 2010 May 17.

3.) Arachidonic acid (naturally found in animal foods) is linked to brain inflammation, depression, anxiety, and stress.
Notes: Arachidonic acid is used by our bodies to create inflammation. Our bodies produce all the arachidonic acid we need unlike other animals (e.g. cats) who produce little to none because their bodies expect to get theirs from their diet (meat). Excess arachidonic acid means excess inflammation.
Source: Preliminary evidence that vegetarian diet improves mood. American Public Health Association annual conference, November 7-11, 2009. Philadelphia, PA.

4.) Chicken and eggs are the top sources of arachidonic acid.
Notes: Humans already produce the natural levels needed for our bodily functions.
Source: National Cancer Institute. 2010. Sources of Selected Fatty Acids among the US Population, 2005–06.

5.) A single meal of high-fat animal products has been shown to spike inflammation within hours that can stiffen one’s arteries.
Notes: Possible explanations could be the saturated fat or endotoxemia (see points 7, 8, and 9 below). Wild animal meat also causes inflammation. See point 10 below.
Source: Effect of a single high-fat meal on endothelial function in healthy subjects. Am J Cardiol. 1997 Feb 1; 79(3):350-4.

6.) High-fat animal products consumed will cause inflammation within the lungs.
Notes: Same study as above.
Source: Effect of a single high-fat meal on endothelial function in healthy subjects. Am J Cardiol. 1997 Feb 1; 79(3):350-4.

7.) Significant levels of bacterial toxins are found in animal products that cause endotoxemia (bacterial toxins in the bloodstream) within hours of eating.
Notes: 40 different types of common foods were tested.
Source: The capacity of foodstuffs to induce innate immune activation of human monocytes in vitro is dependent on food content of stimulants of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4. Br J Nutr. 2011 Jan; 105(1):15-23.

8.) Bacteria endotoxins from animal products have been shown to survive high heat cooking for long periods, acid (like our stomachs), and digestive enzymes.
Source: The capacity of foodstuffs to induce innate immune activation of human monocytes in vitro is dependent on food content of stimulants of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4. Br J Nutr. 2011 Jan; 105(1):15-23.

9.) Endotoxins have a strong affinity for the fat transport system in our digestive tract.
Notes: Since our body is using our fat transport system to let in all the saturated fat (which our body loves to absorb) from the animal products the endotoxins can slip right in.
Source: The capacity of foodstuffs to induce innate immune activation of human monocytes in vitro is dependent on food content of stimulants of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4. Br J Nutr. 2011 Jan; 105(1):15-23.

10.) Even wild, grass consuming animals cause inflammation in our bodies.
Notes: Inflammation was less than domestic animals. It is believe that the lower fat percentage for wild animals explains this.
Source: Differences in postprandial inflammatory responses to a ‘modern’ v. traditional meat meal: a preliminary study. Br J Nutr. 2010 Sep;104(5):724-8.

11.) Dietary fat of animal origin is linked to pancreatic cancer.
Source: Dietary fatty acids and pancreatic cancer in the NIH-AARP diet and health study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009 Jul 15;101(14):1001-11.

12.) The chicken has been linked to urinary tract infections.
Source: Chicken as reservoir for extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli in humans, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012 Mar;18(3):415-21.
Source: Is Escherichia coli urinary tract infection a zoonosis? Proof of direct link with production animals and meat. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012 Jun;31(6):1121-9.

13.) Feeding of cow brains to fish is still legal in the United States (brain cows being fed to cows and other livestock used to be legal and practiced a few years ago) and german scientists have shown fish can acquire mad cow disease.
Notes: Please provide any information if the feeding of cow brains to fish is no longer practiced or legal in the United States.
Source: Evaluation of the possible transmission of BSE and scrapie to gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). PLoS One, 4(7):e6175, 2009.
Source:Bovine spongiform encephalopathy and aquaculture. J Alzheimers Dis, 17(2):277-279, 2009.
Source:Food and Drug Administration, HHS § 589.2001

14.) Cholesterol has been shown to feed and promote the growth of cancer.
Source: Cholesterol and breast cancer development. Current Opinion in Pharmacology. 2012 12 (6):677–682.

15.) Half an egg a day or more is shown to double the odds of mouth, throat, esophageal, prostate, and bladder cancer; triple the odds of colon and breast cancer.
Notes: May be explained by the dixons present. While banned, levels are still present in our food and seem to be worst in animal products.
Source: Egg consumption and the risk of cancer: a multisite case-control study in Uruguay.

16.) The obesogen (chemicals that signal cells to turn into fat cells) organotin has been found in large amounts in fish.
Source: Environmental obesogens: Organotins and endocrine disruption via nuclear receptor signaling. Endocrinology, 147(6 – Suppl):-50, 2006.
Source: Dietary intake of organotin compounds in Finland: a market-basket study.

17.) Meat has little to no antioxidants. Most can’t beat iceberg lettuce.
Notes: One animal source of food did have an extremely high amount of antioxidants: human breast milk.
Source: The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide. Nutr J. 2010 Jan 22;9:3.

18.) High levels of PCB (industrial toxin) in fish oil, fish, and eggs (94% of eggs tested).
Source: European Food Safety Authority; Results of the monitoring of non dioxin-like PCBs in food and feed. EFSA Journal 2010; 8(7):1701. [35 pp.]. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1701.

19.) Harvard studies of 37,698 men and 83,644 women, over 22 and 30 years, respectively, found red meat to increase total mortality rates and cancer mortality rates.
Notes: Results were after controlling for age, weight, alcohol, exercise, smoking, family history, calorie intake, and intake of whole plant foods. Nuts were found to be protective when taken as an alternative protein source.
Source: Red Meat Consumption and Mortality: Results From 2 Prospective Cohort Studies. Arch Intern Med. 2012;0(2012):201122871-9.

20.) Nitrites in processed meat form nitrosamines (carcinogens also found in cigarette smoke) and are associated with the two leading pediatric cancers, brain tumors and childhood leukemia.
Notes: Hot dogs have some of the highest levels. Pregnant women should probably avoid hot dogs.
Source: A meta-analysis of maternal cured meat consumption during pregnancy and the risk of childhood brain tumors. Neuroepidemiology. 2004 Jan-Apr;23(1-2):78-84.
Source:Nitrites, nitrosamines, and cancer. Lancet. 1968 May 18;1(7551):1071-2.

21.) 47% of U.S. retail meat tested is contaminated with staph (Staphylococcus) bacteria. Multidrug resistant strains were common.
Notes: Turkey was the most common with 77% and chicken and pork with 41% and 42%, respectively. A superbug version (methicillin resistant) was also found of MRSA that can jump from pig to human.
Source: Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in US Meat and Poultry. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 May;52(10):1227-30.
Source: Infectious disease. From pigs to people: the emergence of a new superbug.

22.) Eating meat just a few times a month greatly increases the chances of abdominal aortic aneurysm.
Notes: Once an abdominal aortic aneurysm begins to tear you have less than a 15% survival rate.
Source: Analysis of risk factors for abdominal aortic aneurysm in a cohort of more than 3 million individuals. J Vasc Surg. 2010 Sep;52(3):539-48.

23.) Our liver can only detox about 50% of the heterocyclic amines (carcinogens) formed from cooked chicken. Not the originally thought 99% which other animals can.
Notes: The animal that can detox 99% is the lab rat. Thus, the prior incorrect conclusion.
Source: Biomonitoring of urinary metabolites of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (phip) following human consumption of cooked chicken. Food Chem. Toxicol., 46(9):3200-3205, 2008.

24.) One of the longest running studies showed meat consumption to increase allergies. This included asthma, bee stings, drug allergies, and hayfever.
Notes: Meat (including fish) consumed by pregnant woman can cause their children to have allergies.
Source: Knutsen SF. Lifestyle and the use of health services. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994 May;59(5 Suppl):1171S-1175S.
Source: Maternal meat and fat consumption during pregnancy and suspected atopic eczema in Japanese infants aged 3-4 months: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2010 Feb;21(1 Pt 1):38-46. Epub 2009 Jun 23.

25.) Putrescine has been determined to be a carcinogenic. Putrescine is found in food even when not spoiled. Highest level in canned tuna.
Source: Toxicological Effects of Dietary Biogenic Amines. Current Nutrition & Food Science, Volume 6, Number 2, May 2010 , pp. 145-156(12)
Source: Significance of biogenic amines to food safety and human health. Food Research International, Volume 29, Issue 7, October 1996, Pages 675-690.

26.) 100% of human Yersinia enterocolitica outbreak over the last decade was caused by pork.
Notes: Y. enterocolitica usually causes bloody diarrhea and can have very harmful long-term effects if left untreated. Half of American pig herds were found to be infected.
Source: Ranking the disease burden of 14 pathogens in food sources in the United States using attribution data from outbreak investigations and expert elicitation. J. Food Prot. 75, 1278 – 1291 (2012).
Source:Prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica strains in pigs in the United States. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71, 7117 – 7121 (2005).

27.) Processed meat is greatly associated with stomach, colon, rectum, pancreatic, lung, prostate, testicular, kidney, and bladder cancer.
Source: Canadian Cancer Registries Epidemiology Research Group. Salt, processed meat and the risk of cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2011 Mar;20(2):132-9.

28.) Even small amounts of meat consumption less than once a week is linked to degenerative arthritis.
Source: Associations between meat consumption and the prevalence of degenerative arthritis and soft tissue disorders in the Adventist health study, California U.S.A. J Nutr Health Aging, 10(1):7-14, 2006.

29.) After breast cancer diagnosis, increase in saturated fat consumption increased mortality from breast cancer by 41%.
Notes: Top 5 saturated fat sources include cheese, pizza, pastries, ice cream, and chicken (notice beef is not in the top 5).
Source: Post-diagnosis dietary factors and survival after invasive breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011 Jul;128(1):229-36.
Source: National Cancer Institute. 2010. Top Food Sources of Saturated Fat among US Population.

30.) Poultry consumption is associated with an increase in lymphoma (blood cancer).
Source: Consumption of meat and dairy and lymphoma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Int J Cancer. 2011 Feb 1;128(3):623-34.

31.) Chicken handling significantly increased risk of dying from penile (penis) cancer, thought to be due to exposure to cancer causing viruses in poultry.
Source: Cancer mortality in poultry slaughtering/processing plant workers belonging to a union pension fund. Environ Res. 2010 Aug;110(6):588-94.

32.) 14% of retail eggs contain viruses of the leukosis/sarcoma group.
Notes: These viruses are one of the most potent cancer causing viruses in chicken. Virus exposure to humans seems to increased the risk of dying from several different cancers.
Source: Detection of exogenous and endogenous avian leukosis virus in commercial chicken eggs using reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction assay. Avian Pathology (1999) 28, 385±392
Source: Cancer mortality in poultry slaughtering/processing plant workers belonging to a union pension fund. Environ Res. 2010 Aug;110(6):588-94.

33.) Besides cancer, poultry workers suffer more from a range of diseases (e.g. thyroid conditions, schizophrenia, autoimmune neurological disorders, peritonitis, and disease of the kidneys).
Source: Mortality in the Baltimore union poultry cohort: non-malignant diseases. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2010 Jun;83(5):543-52.

34.) Cured meat seems to increase the chance of getting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Notes: COPD is generally defined as lung diseases (e.g. emphysema). As of 2012, COPD is the third most common killer in the United States.
Source: Consumption of cured meats and prospective risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Apr;87(4):1002-8.

35.) Increased meat consumption increases the risk of developing cataracts.
Source: Diet, vegetarianism, and cataract risk. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 May;93(5):1128-35.

36.) Bacteria-eating viruses (bacteriophages) have been approved as meat additives.
Source: Bacteria-eating virus approved as food additive. FDA Consum. 2007 Jan-Feb; 41(1):20-2.

37.) Meat contaminated with fecal food-poisoning bacteria (e.g. salmonella) can legally be sold.
Source: Public knowledge and beliefs about diarrheal disease. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2011 Jan; 8(1):165-7.

38.) Meat, fish, cheese, and general animal protein intake have been associated with an increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Source: Animal protein intake and risk of inflammatory bowel disease: The E3N prospective study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010 Oct; 105(10):2195-201.

39.) One of the largest studies ever links meat consumption with increased overall death, death by cancer, and death by cardiovascular disease.
Notes: Study followed 500,000 people over 10 years.
Source: Meat intake and mortality: a prospective study of over half a million people. Arch Intern Med. 2009 March 23; 169(6): 562–571.

40.) High intake of meat, dairy, and butter have been shown to promote skin wrinkling.
Notes: For those curious, prunes, apples, and tea (especially green) appeared to be the most protective and reduced wrinkling and scaling the most.
Source: Skin wrinkling: can food make a difference? J Am Coll Nutr. 2001 Feb;20(1):71-80.

41.) Abdominal fat has been linked to meat, egg, and milk consumption. Poultry seems to be the worst offender.
Source: Will all Americans become overweight or obese? Estimating the progression and cost of the US obesity epidemic. Obesity (Silver Spring), 16(10):2323-2330, 2008.

42.) Heterocyclic Amines (normally only found in cooked meat) have also been found in cheese and eggs.
Source: Formation and biochemistry of carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in cooked meats. Toxicol Lett. 2007 Feb 5;168(3):219-27. Epub 2006 Nov 16.

43.) Kidney failure is linked to meat.
Notes: Meat consumption was shown to cause human proteins to be urinated out (microalbuminuria). Something that should never happen.
Source: Associations of diet with albuminuria and kidney function decline. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010 May; 5(5):836-43.

44.) New, lower target cholesterol levels are not obtainable when meat is consumed.
Source: High marks for below-average cholesterol. For the best protection against clogged arteries and heart disease, average cholesterol no longer makes the grade–lower is better. Harv Heart Lett. 2006 Feb;16(6):4-5.

45.) Iron found in meat passes through the digestive system without regulation.
Notes: Iron is a pro-oxidant, which can cause oxidative stress and DNA damage. Too much iron can cause colon cancer, cardiovascular disease, infection, and inflammatory conditions. Body has no means to get rid of excess iron through a regulatory system.
Source: Mechanisms of heme iron absorption: current questions and controversies. World J Gastroenterol. 2008 Jul 14; 14(26):4101-10.

46.) Animal foods (including turkey) shown to decrease tryptophan in the brain.
Notes: Tryptophan rich animal foods like turkey will increase the tryptophan levels in the blood, but this in turns decreases it in the brain. Plant based foods high in tryptophan, when compared to other amino acids, and carbohydrates (like seeds) work best to elevate mood and tryptophan in the brain.
Source: Protein-source tryptophan as an efficacious treatment for social anxiety disorder: a pilot study. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007 Sep;85(9):928-32.

47.) Propionate. Meat has no fiber to support healthy bacteria in our guts. That means our bacteria cannot produce propionate which is used to regulate cholesterol and either help us feel satisfied or possibly regulate generation of new fat cells.
Source: Propionate. Anti-obesity and satiety enhancing factor? Appetite. 2011 Apr;56(2):511-5.

48.) Refined grains, eggs, and poultry shown to cause prostate enlargement the most.
Source: Food groups and risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urology. 2006 Jan;67(1):73-9.

49.) Even when meat consumption is reduced to only fish and eggs, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) remained relatively the same.
Notes: IGF-1 has been shown to promote cancer growth.
Source: The associations of diet with serum insulin-like growth factor I and its main binding proteins in 292 women meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002 Nov;11(11):1441-8.

50.) Arsenic, lead, mercury, lead, cadmium, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and veterinary drugs have been found contaminating animal products.
Source: Chemical safety of meat and meat products. Meat Sci. 2010 Sep;86(1):38-48.

51.) Fire retardant chemicals (PBDE) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) found heavily in meats.
Notes: For PBDEs, fish was the worst offender, followed by turkey, and the third worst being chicken. PCNs have a dixion-like effect on the body. The animal with the highest levels was fish. Second was chicken.
Source: Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels in an expanded market basket survey of U.S. food and estimated PBDE dietary intake by age and sex. Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Oct;114(10):1515-20.
Source:Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in U.S. Meat and poultry from two statistically designed surveys showing trends and levels from 2002 to 2008. Agric Food Chem. 2011 May 25;59(10):5428-34.

52.) Consumption of meat, fish, and dairy products associated with mothers passing on DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) to their unborn child even decades after the pesticide being banned.
Source: Organochlorine pesticides in umbilical cord blood serum of women from Southern Spain and adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010 May;48(5):1311-5.

53.) Perfluorochemicals (linked to thyroid disease) exposure comes from meat, fish, and eggs.
Source: Perfluorochemicals in meat, eggs and indoor dust in China: assessment of sources and pathways of human exposure to perfluorochemicals. Environ Sci Technol. 2010 May 1;44(9):3572-9.

54.) 30 year follow up of multiple sclerosis patients showed 95% of those who stopped consuming saturated fat had no progression of the disease.
Notes: A 50 year follow up showed those 95% who started to consume animal fat again instantly had the disease return. The conclusion of the study said MS is mostly likely caused from saturated animal fat.
Source: Effect of low saturated fat diet in early and late cases of multiple sclerosis. Lancet 1990 336(8706):37 – 39.
Source: Review of MS patient survival on a Swank low saturated fat diet. Nutrition 2003 19(2):161 – 162.

55.) Increase dairy intake can double your risk of heart attack.
Source:Plasma and erythrocyte biomarkers of dairy fat intake and risk of ischemic heart disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 86(4):929, 2007.

56.) Almost 80% of all antimicrobials (antibiotics) produced are used on and feed to livestock.
Source: 2009 Summary Report on Antimicrobials Sold or Distributed for Use in Food-Producing Animals. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2010.

57.) Elderly people given milk as children have triple the risk of colorectal cancer.
Source: Childhood dairy intake and adult cancer risk: 65-y follow-up of the boyd orr cohort. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 86(6):1722, 2007.

58.) All types of meat (no matter how it is cooked) increases cancer of the uterus.
Notes: Poultry and fish increased the risk the most.
Source: Animal food intake and cooking methods in relation to endometrial cancer risk in shanghai. Br. J. Cancer, 95(11):15861592, 2006.

59.) Only purines (meats) and fructose increases uric acid levels in our bodies.
Notes: Uric acid increases gout, high blood pressure, obesity, diabetes, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease.
Source: The role of uric acid as an endogenous danger signal in immunity and inflammation. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2011 Apr;13(2):160-6.

60.) PhIP (a type of heterocyclic amines carcinogen in cooked meats) not only damages DNA, but also activates estrogen receptors (almost as strong as the hormone estrogen itself) on breast cancer cells and promotes its growth.
Notes: PhIP has been found in mother’s breast milk. Meaning PhIP from cooked meat does make its way to the breast tissues.
Source: The cooked food derived carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine is a potent oestrogen: A mechanistic basis for its tissue-specific carcinogenicity. Carcinogenesis 2004 25(12):2509 – 2517

61.) PhIP stimulates breast cancer cells to invade healthy cells more so than the hormone estrogen itself. Even when PhIP is at low concentrations.
Notes: PhIP is most common in chicken, beef, and fish.
Source: The cooked meat-derived mammary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine promotes invasive behaviour of breast cancer cells. Toxicology 2011 279(1 – 3):139 – 145

62.) Meat fumes from cooked meat may be hazardous for fetal development and increase the risk of cancer.
Notes: Simply being around the vapors (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or PAHs for short) was associated with a birth weight decrease and head shrinkage.
Source: Impact of barbecued meat consumed in pregnancy on birth outcomes accounting for personal prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Birth cohort study in Poland. Nutrition. 2012 Apr;28(4):372-7.

63.) A diet high in protein, particularly animal protein, has been associated with relapse of inflammatory bowel disease and a higher risk of inflammatory bowel disease.
Source: Diet and risk of inflammatory bowel disease. Dig Liver Dis 2012 44(3):185 – 194

64.) Microparticles (titanium dioxide and aluminum silicate), common additive in pastries and processed food, consumed with endotoxins cause an inflammatory response in the gut wall 6x greater compared to endotoxins alone.
Notes: Most people are digesting a trillion particles of titanium dioxide a day. Researchers found these microparticles in all 18 diseased colons (colon cancer or inflammatory bowel) used for a study. No microparticles were found in the healthy colons studied. Titanium dioxide is used to make things white. Thus white powdered donuts tend to have the most titanium dioxide out of all foods.
Source: Immune potentiation of ultrafine dietary particles in normal subjects and patients with inflammatory bowel disease. J. Autoimmun. 2000 14(1):99 – 105

65.) Meat consumption linked to premature puberty in boys and girls.
Notes: Premature purberty has been linked to increased risk of developing breast cancer in girls and abdominal fat and heart disease in boys.
Source: Internal exposure to pollutants and sexual maturation in Flemish adolescents. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2011 21(3):224 – 233

66.) After consuming animal products human adiponectin levels drop. Hormone adiponectin appears to be protective against cellulite.
Source: Adiponectin expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue is reduced in women with cellulite. Int. J. Dermatol. 2011 50(4):412 – 416
Source: Meal modulation of circulating interleukin 18 and adiponectin concentrations in healthy subjects and in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2003 78(6):1135 – 1140

67.) Animal consumption linked to breast pain.
Notes: Prolactin has been shown to cause breast pain. When vegans and vegetarians in South Africa (who have lower levels of prolactin and breast pain compared to women in western civilization) were fed meat, their prolactin levels went up to match western women. Two separate studies showed significant reduction in cyclical breast pain when meat was removed from the diet.
Source: Diet, lifestyle, and menstrual activity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1980 Jun;33(6):1192-8.
Source: Diet and prolactin release. Lancet. 1976 Oct 9;2(7989):806-7.
Source: Serum prolactin and oestradiol levels in women with cyclical mastalgia. Horm Metab Res. 1981 Dec;13(12):700-2.

68.) Amino acid L-carnitine (found heavily in red meat and popular energy drinks) has been found to cause heart disease.
Notes: While our bodies produce L-carnitine, the problem comes when our gut bacteria comes in contact with it and produces a toxic substance called trimethylamine oxide (TMAO). This substance has been found circulating in our blood after L-carnitine consumption. TMAO also appears to be linked to cancer.
Source: Intestinal microbiota metabolism of l-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis. Nat Med. 2013 Apr 7.

69.) Chickens consumption and handling linked to bladder infections.
Notes: When handling frozen chicken the UTI bacteria causing strains end up in that person’s rectum. Even when the chicken is well cooked before consumption. This is because the jump happens before it is cooked. The strains are usually antibacterial resistant.
Source: Chicken as reservoir for extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli in humans, Canada. Emerging Infect. Dis. 2012 18(3):415 – 421

70.) Thorough cleaning with bleach right after every use has been found to be the only method to significantly reduce chicken pathogens in kitchens. However, pathogens were still detectable on some kitchen items.
Notes: All items used were washed in beach and surfaces were sprayed and wiped. Washcloth was soaked in bleach. Bleach was allowed to sit on surfaces for 5 minutes before test results were taken. Pathogens were still found on utensils, counters, and washcloth.
Source: The effectiveness of hygiene procedures for prevention of cross-contamination from chicken carcases in the domestic kitchen. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 1999 29(5):354 – 358

71.) A 5% increase of calories from saturated fat (at the expense of calories from carbohydrates) can result in a 38% lower sperm count.
Source: Dietary fat and semen quality among men attending a fertility clinic. Hum. Reprod. 2012 27(5):1466 – 1474

72.) Xenoestrogens (human made chemicals with estrogenic effects) have been found the most in fish.
Source: Role of environmental estrogens in the deterioration of male factor fertility. Fertil Steril. 2002 Dec;78(6):1187-94.

73.) Fish eaters have been shown to have only a fraction of the sperm count of vegans.
Source: Role of environmental estrogens in the deterioration of male factor fertility. Fertil Steril. 2002 Dec;78(6):1187-94.

74.) The American Heart Association took legal action through the FDA (which was upheld by the Supreme Court) to have the egg industry cease and desist promoting eggs as having no harmful effects on your health.
Notes: Not a scientific fact, but interesting nonetheless. The notable statement by the egg industry was an advertising campaign that stated there is no scientific evidence that eggs cause heart disease. After the courts reviewed the evidence, they found the statement to be clearly false and misleading.
Source: Dietary cholesterol, serum cholesterol, and risks of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular diseases. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1998 67(3):488 – 492

75.) One egg contains almost 2/3 of the cholesterol limit suggested by the American Heart Association for healthy people.
Source: AHA Website

76.) Meat handlers have a much high mortality rate of cancer.
Notes: Most of the highest rates were found with the workers handling the final product.
Source: Cancer mortality in workers employed in cattle, pigs, and sheep slaughtering and processing plants. Environ Int 2011 37(5):950 – 959.

77.) Growing up on an animal farm increases the chance of blood cancers (poultry farms were the worst).
Notes: Growing up on farms only growing crops showed no increased chance of blood cancers.
Source: Farming, growing up on a farm, and haematological cancer mortality. Occup Environ Med 2012 69(2):126 – 132.

78.) Eating meat may cause cellular cannibalism (auto-immune polyradiculoneuropathy) and thus explaining autoimmune attack (rheumatoid arthritis).
Notes: By consuming organisms in our own kingdom, our immune system may be identifying our own flesh as foreign objects. Auto-immune polyradiculoneuropathy has never been found to be caused by plant consumption.
Source: Meat-induced joint attacks, or meat attacks the joint: rheumatism versus allergy. Nutr Clin Pract. 2010 Feb;25(1):90-1.
Source: Auto-immune polyradiculoneuropathy and a novel IgG biomarker in workers exposed to aerosolized porcine brain. J. Peripher. Nerv. Syst. 2011 16 (Suppl 1):34 – 37

79.) Methionine (an amino acid) is required for many cancers and tumors to stay alive and grow. Methionine is found virtually only in animal products (with eggs, fish, and chicken being the worst).
Source: The effect of replacement of methionine by homocystine on survival of malignant and normal adult mammalian cells in culture. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1974 71(4):1133 – 1136.

80.) Meat is acidic which causes higher risk of kidney stones and lower urine acid clearance.
Source: Diet-induced metabolic acidosis. Clin Nutr 2011 30(4):416 – 421.

81.) Choline, a substance very high in eggs, can cause trimethylamine (the smell of rotten fish) to your breath, urine, sweat, and vagina.
Source: Smelling like dead fish: A case of trimethylaminuria in an adolescent. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2006 45(9):864 – 866.

82.) Choline is converted to TMAO which, as already stated, is linked to heart disease and cancer.
Source: Intestinal microbiota metabolism of l-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis. Nat Med. 2013 Apr 7.

83.) Choline is associated with prostate cancer progression and death.
Source: Choline intake and risk of lethal prostate cancer: Incidence and survival. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2012 96(4):855 – 863.

84.) Pork tapeworm brain infection is the most common parasitic disease in the brain for people and is on the rise for humans in the United States.
Notes: Referred to as neurocysticercosis in the study.
Source:Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of neurocysticercosis. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2011 11(6):529 – 535.

85.) Meat eaters have a lower resting metabolism compared to vegans and vegetarians.
Source: Sympathetic nervous system activity and resting metabolic rate in vegetarians. Metab. Clin. Exp. 1994 43(5):621 – 625.

86.) Phosphorus preservatives are being injected into meat. These phosphorus preservatives may damage blood vessels, accelerate the aging process, and contribute to osteoporosis.
Notes: Higher phosphate levels are associated with significantly lower life span.
Source: Phosphate additives in food–a health risk. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2012 109(4):49 – 55.
Source: The prevalence of phosphorus-containing food additives in top-selling foods in grocery stores. J Ren Nutr. 2013 23(4):265-270.

87.) Phosphorus preservatives injected into poultry dramatically increase the growth of food poisoning Campylobacter bacteria.
Notes: Campylobacter is recognized as the main cause of bacterial foodborne disease in many developed countries.
Source:Effects of polyphosphate additives on Campylobacter survival in processed chicken exudates. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2010 76(8):2419 – 2424

88.) Chicken nuggets from 2 national food chains found actual chicken meat was not the predominant ingredient as fat was found in greater quantities along with epithelium, bone, nerve (brain and spine), and connective tissue.
Source: The autopsy of chicken nuggets reads chicken little. Am J Med. 2013 126(11):1018-1019.

89.) Even when looking at endurance athletes, meat eaters’ arteries are thicker (from atherosclerosis plaque) than your average vegan.
Source:Homocysteine, circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule and carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal vegetarian women and omnivores. Atherosclerosis 2006 184(2):356 – 362.
Source:Long-term low-calorie low-protein vegan diet and endurance exercise are associated with low cardiometabolic risk. Rejuvenation Res. 2007 10(2):225 – 234.

90.) Mercury and PCB exposure, due to fish consumption, shown to harm fetus brain development.
Source:Functional MRI approach to developmental methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyl neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicology 2011 32(6):975 – 980.

91.) Mercury in fish shown to outweigh benefits of omega-3s when it comes to brain development (specifically IQ).
Source: Fish consumption during child bearing age: a quantitative risk-benefit analysis on neurodevelopment. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013 54:30-34.

92.) Due to mercury “sticking” to our bodies, most women planning on getting pregnant need to avoid mercury containing foods 1 year before.
Notes: Half-life of mercury is about 2 months. That means after 2 months the mercury amount present is cut in half.
Source:Fish consumption during child bearing age: A quantitative risk-benefit analysis on neurodevelopment. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2013 54(NA):30 – 34.

93.) Pregnant women eating fish once a week give their infants more mercury than if they were injected with six mercury containing vaccines.
Source: Speciation of methyl- and ethyl-mercury in hair of breastfed infants acutely exposed to thimerosal-containing vaccines. Clin. Chim. Acta. 2011 412(17 – 18):1563 – 1566.

94.) Some chemicals (dioxins, PCB, and DDE) found in fish have half lives as high as 10 years.
Notes: A 10 year half life means after 10 years only half of those chemicals are gone from your body. So it would take a lifetime to get even close to 1 percent of your present levels.
Source: Elimination half-lives of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in children. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008 42(18):6991 – 6996.

95.) Gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy which causes abnormal fetal growth, birth defects, and infant mortality) risk is increased when meat is consumed before pregnancy.
Notes: Bacon, processed meats, and eggs seem to do the worst damage.
Source: A prospective study of dietary patterns, meat intake and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia. 2006 49(11):2604 – 2613.
Source:Risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in relation to maternal egg and cholesterol intake. Am. J. Epidemiol. 2011 173(6):649 – 658.

96.) Cow’s milk contains estrogen and other hormones (naturally) which promote the conversion of precancerous cell to invasive cancer and enhance the progression of cancer cells.
Notes: Organic milk was used in the study.
Source: Milk stimulates growth of prostate cancer cells in culture. Nutr Cancer. 2011 63(8):1361 – 1366.

97.) Just how smoking is a risk factor for lung cancer, milk consumption is a risk factor for prostate cancer
Notes: This is from a meta-analysis (a summation of all studies to date found on milk consumption and prostate cancer) on case-control studies (looking at what people with and without prostate cancer had consumed in their past) and another meta-analysis on cohort type studies (following people throughout the years, what they consumed, and who got prostate cancer).
Source: Milk consumption is a risk factor for prostate cancer: Meta-analysis of case-control studies. Nutr Cancer. 2004 48(1):22 – 27.
Source: Milk consumption is a risk factor for prostate cancer in Western countries: Evidence from cohort studies. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007 16(3):467 – 476.

98.) “Meat glue” enzyme, transglutaminase, has potential food safety and allergy implications.
Notes: The enzyme functions as an auto-antigen and will give problems to those who are gluten intolerant. Bacteria from other parts of the animal (like E. coli O157:H7) can be found along the glue line.
Source: Transglutaminase, gluten and celiac disease: Food for thought. Nat. Med. 1997 3(7):725 – 726.
Source:Escherichia coli O157: H7 risk assessment for production and cooking of restructured beef steaks. Report of progress (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service); 873 2010.

99.) Study found 70% of purchased chicken breasts for the study contained cancer causing form of arsenic beyond the safety thresholds of the FDA.
Source: Roxarsone, inorganic arsenic, and other arsenic species in chicken: A U.S.-Based market basket sample. Environ Health Perspect. 2013 121(7):818 – 824.

100.) Amino acid leucine has the greatest effect on increasing mTORC1 (believed to accelerate the aging process). Meat products have the most leucine.
Notes: Calorie restriction is known to down-regulate mTORC1. However, protein restriction, especially the amino acid leucine, has been found to be just as effective.
Source: Amino acid sensing and regulation of mTORC1. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2012 23(6):621 – 625.
Source:Nutrient control of TORC1, a cell-cycle regulator. Trends Cell Biol. 2009 19(6):260 – 267.


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#93 12-11-2018 09:54:40

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

Taxe sur la viande : le projet se précise
The Grill: Before By: Basheer Tome - CC BY 2.0

Taxer la viande : l’idée ne cesse d’avancer dans les esprits des législateurs. Elle est pourtant contre-productive.
https://www.contrepoints.org/2018/11/10 … BZPg0MP4g0

Heureusement (et PAN sur la truffe des « businesseurs verdatre » )Ne pas oubliez où peut arriver la bêtise des végans avec l’exemple dramatique de ces parents propriétaire d’un magasin bio (de ceux qui « donnaient » des conseils nutritionnels aux autres !!!!!! .)
http://www.francetvinfo.fr/sante/alimen … 94899.html
Il y a quelques mois dans la Drôme:
http://www.europe1.fr/societe/drome-des … ne-3689951


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#94 13-11-2018 09:07:00

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

Taxons la viande plutôt que le carburant !
Par David Chauvet , juriste, essayiste — 6 novembre 2018 à 18:26
https://www.liberation.fr/debats/2018/1 … -hP5DkFGbc

Par contre, ils pourraient immédiatement se passer de viande. Car on vit très bien sans, et plus longtemps apparemment.

Alors, pourquoi ne pas taxer la viande, plutôt que la subventionner? Ou au moins la viande issue des élevages les plus polluants ou les plus cruels, comme ceux en batterie? Pourquoi ne pas inciter les consommateurs à se tourner vers des alternatives plus vertueuses, pour les animaux bien sûr, mais aussi pour leur propre santé et pour l’environnement ? Le gouvernement ignore-t-il que la viande est la principale cause du réchauffement climatique, devant la voiture ? Ou ne le sait-il que trop bien, tout à l’écoute qu’il est du tout-puissant lobby de l’élevage? C’est très regrettable, car la planète ne risque guère d’être great again si nous ne diminuons pas drastiquement notre consommation de viande. C’est là, en vérité, un véritable tabou, alors posons la question: pourquoi la viande serait tout à la fois le produit le plus polluant et le plus encouragé ?

David Chauvet est l’auteur de Contre la mentaphobie (L’Age d’homme, 2014) et Une Raison de lutter. L’avenir politique et philosophique de la viande (L’Age d’homme, 2017).

Melvin Josse : «La cause animale est devenue un enjeu politique»
Par Sarah Finger — 4 novembre 2018 à 20:26
Selon le premier lobbyiste professionnel pour la défense des animaux en France, le gouvernement n’a pas pris la mesure de l’intérêt des Français pour le sujet.
https://www.liberation.fr/france/2018/1 … ue_1689902

En un an, nous avons organisé 80 tête-à-tête avec des députés, des sénateurs et des conseillers ministériels pour leur exposer notre action et les sensibiliser. Nous avons réuni à quatre reprises des parlementaires et nos associations partenaires autour d’un thème précis, comme la corrida ou l’élevage. L’idée est de créer un noyau dur de sympathisants animalistes.
Avec quels résultats ?

Après plus d’un an de lobbying relationnel, une quarantaine de députés et sénateurs sont motivés et attentifs à notre action. CAP représente aujourd’hui 800 associations : ce poids nous a permis de décrocher des rendez-vous au ministère de la Transition écologique, à Matignon et à l’Elysée. Une proposition de loi sur l’enfance et la corrida, déposée en mars par Michel Larive (LFI), découle de nos rencontres, de même qu’un texte visant à interdire les animaux sauvages dans les cirques, porté par Vincent Ledoux (groupe Les Constructifs). D’autres propositions de loi sont en gestation.


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#95 13-11-2018 09:12:47

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

Diet-heart hypothesis

The Diet-Heart Hypothesis
– Hormonal Obesity XXXV
https://idmprogram.com/diet-heart-hypot … sity-xxxv/

With the publication of Dr. Key’s Seven Country Study, the origins of the Diet-Heart Hypothesis were laid down.  The major problem was that this was all observational data, and as such, was subject to severe interpretation.  There is nothing more dangerous in medicine than the correlation study.  It cannot be used to prove a hypothesis, only to disprove one.

The Truth About Ancel Keys: We’ve All Got It Wrong
Denise Minger
https://deniseminger.com/2011/12/22/the … -it-wrong/

The Truth:

    Ancel Keys did not drop any countries from the Seven Countries Study. His most famous graph—the first one up above—is from a different paper he presented at a World Health Organization (WHO) conference in 1955. The Seven Countries Study didn’t even launch until 1958, and entailed much more than just plopping numbers into a pretty curve. (That said, the Seven Countries Study had plenty of problems too; some are mentioned on this site.)
    Contrary to popular belief, the cherry-picked graph didn’t convince everyone that fat was evil. In fact, Keys was pretty much ridiculed for the weakness of his fat/heart disease theory by other scientists at the WHO meeting, and whenever his graph was cited in medical journals later on, it was usually paired with some criticism. Although Keys’ work definitely shaped our current beliefs about fat, this graph didn’t exactly take the world by storm. (More on this later.)
    When all 22 countries were analyzed, the association between fat and heart disease did not go away. It actually remained statistically significant (meaning it probably wasn’t due to chance). And to make matters worse, the paper frequently cited as a “rebuttal” to Keys shows pretty clearly that animal protein had an even stronger association with heart disease than total fat did. The China Study was right all along! Time to go vegan, you guys. (Just kidding. But this part is the most interesting of all, and we’ll examine it in excruciating depth in a moment.)


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#96 13-11-2018 09:16:51

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

Conversion du béta-carotène

Single nucleotide polymorphisms upstream from the β-carotene 15,15'-monoxygenase gene influence provitamin A conversion efficiency in female volunteers.
Lietz G1, Oxley A, Leung W, Hesketh J.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22113863

β-Carotene, the most abundant provitamin A carotenoid in the diet, is converted to retinal by β-carotene 15,15'-monoxygenase (BCMO1). However, β-carotene absorption and conversion into retinal is extremely variable among individuals, with proportions of low responders to dietary β-carotene as high as 45%. Recently, 2 common nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the BCMO1 coding region (R267S; rs12934922 and A379V; rs7501331) revealed reduced catalytic activity, confirming that genetic variations contribute to the low responder phenotype. Because 4 SNPs 5' upstream from the BCMO1 gene were recently shown to affect circulating carotenoid concentrations, the current study aimed to investigate the effects of these SNPs on β-carotene conversion efficiency. Three of the 4 polymorphisms (rs6420424, rs11645428, and rs6564851) reduced the catalytic activity of BCMO1 in female volunteers by 59, 51, and 48%, respectively. The TG-rich lipoprotein fraction retinyl palmitate:β-carotene ratio was negatively correlated with the G allele of rs11645428 (r = -0.44; P = 0.018), whereas it was positively correlated with the G allele of rs6420424 (r = 0.53; P = 0.004) and the T allele of rs6564851 (r = 0.41; P = 0.028). Furthermore, large inter-ethnic variations in frequency of affected alleles were detected, with frequencies varying from 43 to 84% (rs6420424), 52 to 100% (rs11645428), and 19 to 67% (rs6564851). In summary, a range of SNPs can influence the effectiveness of using plant-based provitamin A carotenoids to increase vitamin A status in at-risk population groups and this effect may vary depending on ethnic origin.


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#97 13-11-2018 09:18:46

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

Aymeric Caron : "Dire à un boucher que c’est un assassin, c’est une réalité"
Après "Antispéciste", Aymeric Caron publie "Vivant", un ouvrage dans lequel il retrace l’histoire de la vie sur notre planète. Selon lui, l’homo sapiens est voué à disparaître pour laisser place à une nouvelle espèce humaine, plus morale. Interview.
https://www.wedemain.fr/Aymeric-Caron-D … a3718.html

Je parle ici de ceux que j’appelle les "viandales". Il y a quelque chose d’indécent, de vulgaire à avoir des gens qui s’empiffrent d’un gros bout de viande au mépris total de ce que veut vraiment dire ce bout de viande, de là d’où il vient, de ce qu’a pu endurer l’animal…

Extrait du livre :

Humain, je crois que j’ai cessé de t’aimer. Tes qualités, si peu exploitées, ne suffisent plus à compenser tes tares rédhibitoires au premier rang desquelles je place la stupidité. Car tu es profondément idiot. L’avenir que tu te prépares en est la preuve.

C’est plus fort que toi : tu as toujours lapidé, égorgé, taillé en pièces, écartelé, mitraillé, fusillé, bombardé. Des centaines de millions d’hommes, de femmes et d’enfants sont morts prématurément en raison de leur appartenance à un clan, à une tribu, à un drapeau ou à une religion. Tu as par ailleurs toujours mis à mort pour te nourrir. Des milliards de milliards d’animaux non humains ont été zigouillés en quelques millénaires pour remplir nos panses. Et depuis deux siècles, c’est la Terre que tu assassines. Tu pilles, creuses, déracines, arraches, empoisonnes, assèches, asphyxies, sans penser un seul instant aux conséquences de tes actes.(…)

Tu protestes et évoques ce que tu as accompli en quelques millions d’années, et qu’aucune autre créature terrestre n’a été en mesure de réaliser. Il est vrai que tu peux être fier. Avec ta faible corpulence, ton absence de crocs, de fourrure, de carapace, de venin, puisque Epiméthée faillit, tu n’étais à l’origine qu’une pauvre bestiole à la merci des éléments et des nombreux animaux plus forts que toi. Tu étais donc voué à une disparition rapide. Et te voilà au sommet, souverain incontesté terrorisant la moindre parcelle de nature. Un improbable hold-up perpétré grâce aux malices de l’évolution qui t’a choisi comme récipiendaire de ses nouveautés les plus spectaculaires. Tu ris, et imagines que c’est toi qui as dompté le sort pour te hisser au rang d’espèce dominatrice. Comprends que tu n’y es pas pour grand-chose. La chance, c’est tout. Et qu’en as-tu fait ? Un peu de sublime qui ne compense pas le gâchis magistral.(...)

Sapiens Humain, est-ce ton genre qui est en cause ou ton espèce ? « Homo sapiens ». Connais-tu la signification de ton nom ? « Sapiens », dit le Gaffiot : « intelligent, sage, raisonnable, prudent ». Veux-tu que l’on reprenne chacun de ces termes ? Sage, raisonnable, prudent ? Allons, soyons sérieux. Tu es tout l’inverse.(...)

Après habilis (habile), ergaster (artisan), erectus (dressé), neanderthalensis (du nom d’une vallée). Sapiens, ton incapacité à réaliser la promesse de ton titre a signé ta fin. Bientôt tu ne seras plus, éradiqué par tes soins. Bravo, cas unique dans l’histoire du vivant. L’humanité disparaîtra-t-elle avec toi ?


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#98 18-11-2018 09:43:27

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

Vegan diet increases the risk of birth defects, scientists warn
Women who are strict vegetarians or vegans may be a greater risk of having a child with birth defects because they are likely to be deficient in vitamin B12, researchers warned.
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health … -warn.html

A maternal vegetarian diet in pregnancy is associated with hypospadias
K. North, J. Golding
British Journal of Urology International, 2000, 2008
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/ful … 00.00436.x

Maternal vegan diet causing a serious infantile neurological disorder due to vitamin B12 deficiency
T. Kühne, R. Bubl, R. Baumgartner, 1991
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01963568

Soja : la fin d’un mythe
Agriculture et environnement, 21 août 2006
https://www.agriculture-environnement.f … n-mythe114

Oral implication of the vegan diet : observational study
L. Laffranchi et al., 2010
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Do … 000000.pdf

The study revealed greater incidence of demineralization and white spots in vegan subjects compared to the omnivorous ones


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#99 18-11-2018 12:07:35

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

Vegan Diet
Position of the German Nutrition Society (DGE)

Margrit Richter et al., 2016
https://www.ernaehrungs-umschau.de/file … _final.pdf

On the basis of current scientific literature, the German Nutrition Society (DGE) has developed a position on the vegan diet. With a pure plant-based diet, it is difficult or  impossible  to  attain an  adequate  supply  of  some  nutrients.  The  most  critical nutrient is vitamin B12. Other potentially critical nutrients in a vegan diet include protein resp. indispensable amino acids, long-chain n-3 fatty acids, other vitamins (riboflavin, vitamin D) and minerals (calcium, iron, iodine, zinc and selenium). The DGE does not recommend a vegan diet for pregnant women, lactating women, infants, children or adolescents. Persons who nevertheless wish to follow a vegan diet should permanently take a vitamin B12 supplement, pay attention to an adequate
intake of nutrients, especially critical nutrients, and possibly use fortified foods or dietary supplements. They should receive advice from a nutrition counsellor and their supply of critical nutrients should be regularly checked by a physician

Complementary Feeding: A Position Paper by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Committee on
Nutrition

Mary Fewtrell et al., 2017
https://journals.lww.com/jpgn/fulltext/ … he.21.aspx

Although theoretically a vegan diet can  meet  nutrient  requirements  when  mother  and  infant  follow medical and dietary advice regarding supplementation, the risks of failing to follow advice are severe, including irreversible cognitive damage from vitamin B12 deficiency, and death. If a parent chooses to wean an infant onto a vegan diet this should be done under regular medical and expert dietetic supervision and mothers should receive and follow nutritional advice (115). Mothers who are consuming a vegan diet need to ensure an adequate nutrient supply, especially of vitamins B12, B2, A, and D, during pregnancy and lactation either from fortified foods or supplements. Careful attention is required to provide  the  infant  with  sufficient  vitamin  B12 (0.4mg/day from birth, 0.5mg/day  from 6  months) and vitamin D,  and iron, zinc,
folate, n-3 fatty acids (especially DHA), protein, and calcium, and to ensure adequate energy density of the diet.


Conclusions étonnantes. Après avoir cité l'avis des deux papiers ci-dessus, listant tous les nutriments potentiellement problématiques, l'article ne se focalise que sur la B12 et conclut qu'avec une supplémentation en cette vitamine, tout va bien, sans jamais étudier les autres nutriments. Et ça passe tranquille dans Nature.

To vegan or not to vegan when pregnant, lactating or feeding young children
R Pawlak
European  Journal  of  Clinical  Nutrition, 2017
http://sci-hub.tw/https://www.nature.co … jcn2017111

Autre conclusion pour le moins étrange : on n'est sûrs de rien, et de plus nos résultats ne semblent pas valables dans le cas d'un végétarisme économique forcé, mais dans le doute on va dire que c'est ok... Où est le principe de précaution ? On parle d'enfants qui risquent des malformations ou des séquelles à vie, là ! C'est bien de citer Hippocrate dans l'introduction, mais il faudrait se rappeler la première règle de la médecine : d'abord, ne pas nuire.

Vegan–vegetarian diets in pregnancy: danger or panacea? A systematic narrative review
GB Piccoli et al.
BJOG, 2015
https://obgyn.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/d … 0528.13280

The evidence on vegan–vegetarian diets in pregnancy is heterogeneous and scant. The lack of randomised studies prevents us from distinguishing the effects of diet from confounding factors. Within these limits, vegan–vegetarian diets may be considered safe in pregnancy, provided that attention is paid to vitamin and trace element requirements.

Considering only those who choose vegan–vegetarian diets without financial constraints, and within the limits of highly heterogeneous, often low‐quality or old information (when the reporting and research standards were remarkably different), the available data support the safety of vegan–vegetarian diets in pregnancy, provided attention is paid to compensating for the nutritional deficiencies (mainly of vitamin B12 and iron).


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#100 18-11-2018 13:33:29

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

Ex-végans

Sustenance
http://sustenancemovie.com/?fbclid=IwAR … nwY36ay7sQ

I was passionate about nature, animals, and what's happening to our current food system, our health, and our planet Earth. Vegetarianism and later on Veganism sounded like a convenient solution to the world food's politics, nutrition, justice, and sustainability. Like many other passionate foodies, I  followed the diet until it started affecting my health condition. Incidentally, I got into a discussion with my acupuncturist while complaining about numerous signs of newly developed sicknesses I was experiencing. "Read this book and let's talk again," said the wise man. I remember reading the book, throwing it away, crying, rereading it, and this agony went on for a few weeks until I finally opened my eyes and absorbed these pieces of information. After all, I wasn't alone in this journey. Our current Western food system is attracting people into acceptance of numerous myths on food, therefore, creating a new "healthy" trend within the industrial agriculture food market that targets especially children and teenagers.


Les méfaits du véganisme compilés sur un blog
http://alerte-environnement.fr/2017/02/ … r-un-blog/

Interviews d'ex-végans :
http://letthemeatmeat.com/tagged/ExVegan_Interviews

Les ex-vegans en colère
BLog Les questions composent, 2011
https://lesquestionscomposent.fr/les-ex … en-colere/

The Ex-Vegan Encyclopedia
by Benjamin McCormick February 07, 2018
https://vomadlife.com/blogs/news/the-ex … cyclopedia

7 Nutritional Deficiencies of an Ex-Vegan
https://medium.com/@plantbasedrachel/7- … 8048aebd9f

I was vegan for 18 years and had to start eating animal food six months ago from severe deficiencies even though I had an amazing diet. I’m seriously deficient in ferritin, carnitine, creatine, vitamin D3, zinc, taurine, vitamin B5, and heme iron. I’ve had multiple miscarriages because of my deficiencies.


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