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#1 22-04-2018 16:14:27

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Pesticides et OGM, dangereux ou pas ?

En tout cas, il faut évaluer les substances actives, mais aussi les produits complets.

Major Pesticides Are More Toxic to Human Cells Than Their Declared Active Principles
Robin Mesnage,1 Nicolas Defarge,1 Joël Spiroux de Vendômois,2 and Gilles-Eric Séralini1
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2 … cation=ufi

Pesticides are used throughout the world as mixtures called formulations. They contain adjuvants, which are often kept confidential and are called inerts by the manufacturing companies, plus a declared active principle, which is usually tested alone. We tested the toxicity of 9 pesticides, comparing active principles and their formulations, on three human cell lines (HepG2, HEK293, and JEG3). Glyphosate, isoproturon, fluroxypyr, pirimicarb, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole, and prochloraz constitute, respectively, the active principles of 3 major herbicides, 3 insecticides, and 3 fungicides. We measured mitochondrial activities, membrane degradations, and caspases 3/7 activities. Fungicides were the most toxic from concentrations 300–600 times lower than agricultural dilutions, followed by herbicides and then insecticides, with very similar profiles in all cell types. Despite its relatively benign reputation, Roundup was among the most toxic herbicides and insecticides tested. Most importantly, 8 formulations out of 9 were up to one thousand times more toxic than their active principles. Our results challenge the relevance of the acceptable daily intake for pesticides because this norm is calculated from the toxicity of the active principle alone. Chronic tests on pesticides may not reflect relevant environmental exposures if only one ingredient of these mixtures is tested alone.

Stronger effects of Roundup than its active ingredient glyphosate in damselfly larvae
LizanneJanssens, RobbyStoks 2017
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a … 5X17303156

Pesticides are causing strong decreases in aquatic biodiversity at concentrations assumed safe by legislation. One reason for the failing risk assessment may be strong differences in the toxicity of the active ingredient of pesticides and their commercial formulations. Sublethal effects, especially those on behaviour, have been largely ignored in this context, yet can be equally important as lethal effects at the population and ecosystem levels. Here, we compared the toxicity of the herbicide Roundup and its active ingredient glyphosate on survival, but also on ecologically relevant sublethal traits (life history, behaviour and physiology) in damselfly larvae. Roundup was more toxic than glyphosate with negative effects on survival, behaviour and most of the physiological traits being present at lower concentrations (food intake, escape swimming speed) or even only present (survival, sugar and total energy content and muscle mass) following Roundup exposure. This confirms the toxicity of the surfactant POEA. Notably, also glyphosate was not harmless: a realistic concentration of 2 mg/l resulted in reduced growth rate, escape swimming speed and fat content. Our results therefore indicate that the toxicity of Roundup cannot be fully attributed to its surfactant, thereby suggesting that also the new generation of glyphosate-based herbicides with other mixtures of surfactants likely will have adverse effects on non-target aquatic organisms. Ecotoxicological studies comparing the toxicity of active ingredients and their commercial formulations typically ignore behaviour while the here observed differential effects on behaviour likely will negatively impact damselfly populations. Our data highlight that risk assessment of pesticides ignoring sublethal effects may contribute to the negative effects of pesticides on aquatic biodiversity.

Bioaccumulation of glyphosate and its formulation Roundup Ultra in Lumbriculus variegatus and its effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes
Valeska Contardo-Jaraa, Eva Klingelmann, Claudia Wieganda, 2009
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a … 9108004053

Glyphosate and its surfactant POEA caused elevation of biotransformation enzyme soluble glutathione S-transferase at non-toxic concentrations. Membrane bound glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly elevated in Roundup Ultra exposed worms, compared to treatment with equal glyphosate concentrations, but did not significantly differ from the control. Antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase was significantly increased by glyphosate but in particular by Roundup Ultra exposure indicating oxidative stress. The results show that the formulation Roundup Ultra is of more ecotoxicological relevance than the glyphosate itself.


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#2 22-04-2018 17:14:22

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Re : Pesticides et OGM, dangereux ou pas ?

Glyphosate / Roundup

Vie acquatique

Genotoxic effects of Roundup® on the fish Prochilodus lineatus
D.G.S.M.Cavalcante, C.B.R.Martinez, S.H.Sofia
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a … 1808001794

In conclusion, the results of this work showed that Roundup® produced genotoxic effects on the fish species P. lineatus. The comet assay with gill cells showed to be an important complementary tool for detecting genotoxicity, given that it revealed DNA damage in periods of exposure that erythrocytes did not. ENAs frequency was not a good indicator of genotoxicity, but further studies are needed to better understand the origin of these abnormalities.

Glyphosate and Roundup® alter morphology and behavior in zebrafish
Daiane Bridi, Stefani Altenhofen, Jonas Brum Gonzalez, Gustavo Kellermann Reolon, Carla Denise Bonan, 2017
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a … 3X17303128


Genotoxicity of the herbicide formulation Roundup® (glyphosate) in broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) evidenced by the Comet assay and the Micronucleus
G.L.Poletta, A.Larriera, E.Kleinsorge, M.D.Mudry, 2009

A significant increase in DNA damage was observed at a concentration of 500 μg/egg or higher, compared to untreated control animals (p < 0.05). Results from both the Comet assay and the MN test revealed a concentration-dependent effect. This study demonstrated adverse effects of Roundup® on DNA of C. latirostris

Micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities on Caiman latirostris (Broad-snouted caiman) hatchlings after embryonic exposure to different pesticide formulations
E.C.López González, A.Larriera, P.A.Siroski, G.L.Poletta, 2017

Embryos were exposed (during all incubation: 70 days approximately) to sub-lethal concentrations of two glyphosate formulations PanzerGold® (PANZ) and Roundup® Full II (RU) (500, 750, 1000 µg/egg); to the endosulfan (END) formulation Galgofan® and the cypermethrin (CYP) formulation Atanor® (1, 10, 100, and 1000 µg/ egg).
[...] Our study demonstrated that commercial formulations of pesticides induced genotoxic effects on C. latirostris

Histopathological Effects of Roundup, a Glyphosate Herbicide, on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
Wannee Jiraungkoorskul, E Suchart Upatham, Maleeya Kruatrachue, Somphong Sahaphong, Suksiri Vichasri-Grams and Prayad Pokethitiyook, 2001
https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.d … up_a_G.pdf

The acute toxicity of Roundup, a glyphosate herbicide, to Nile tilapia,
Oreochromis niloticus, was investigated with emphasis on histopathological effects.  The values of 24-h, 48-h, 72-h and 96-h LC 50
for young tilapia were 17.5, 17.1, 16.9 and 16.8 ppm, respectively, and those for adult tilapia were
46.9, 44.4, 40.0 and 36.8 ppm, respectively.  They indicated that adult fish were more tolerant to Roundup
than the much smaller young fish.  Roundup concentration corresponding to the 96-h LC
50 value for adult tilapia was used to study the effects of Roundup exposure in inducing histopathological changes
of gills, liver and kidneys.  In the gills, filament cell proliferation, lamellar cell hyperplasia, lamellar
fusion, epithelial lifting and aneurysm were observed.  In the liver, there was vacuolation of hepatocytes
and  nuclear  pyknosis.    Kidney  lesions  consisted  of  dilation  of  Bowman’s  space  and  accumulation  of
hyaline  droplets  in  the  tubular  epithelial  cells.    These  changes  occurred  predominantly  in  the  96-h
exposure.



Genotoxic effects of the herbicide Roundup Transorb® and its active ingredient glyphosate on the fish Prochilodus lineatus
Natália CestariMoreno, Silvia HelenaSofia, Claudia B.R.Martinez, 2013

These results revealed that both glyphosate itself and RT were genotoxic to gill cells and erythrocytes of P. lineatus, suggesting that their use should be carefully monitored considering their potential impact on tropical aquatic biota.

Evaluation of the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of glyphosate-based herbicides in the ten spotted live-bearer fish Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Jenyns, 1842)
JosefinaVera-Candioti, SoniaSoloneski, Marcelo L.Larramendy
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a … 1312004484

our results demonstrated that Panzer® and Credit® should be considered as glyphosate-based commercial formulations with genotoxic but not cytotoxic effect properties.


Toxicité pour les lézards
Genotoxicity induced by Roundup® (Glyphosate) in tegu lizard (Salvator merianae) embryos
Laura G.Schaumburg, Pablo A.Siroski, Gisela L.Poletta, Marta D.Mudrya
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a … 7515300699

We consider of utmost necessity a strict regulation of the agrochemical application conditions in those environments near to places where wild populations of terrestrial and aquatic species live, in order to minimize the adverse effects on ecosystems.


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#3 28-05-2018 14:21:21

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Re : Pesticides et OGM, dangereux ou pas ?

Landmark lawsuit claims Monsanto hid cancer danger of weedkiller for decades

In June, a California groundskeeper will make history by taking company to trial on claims it suppressed harm of Roundup
https://www.theguardian.com/business/20 … are_btn_tw


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#4 14-07-2018 15:47:25

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Re : Pesticides et OGM, dangereux ou pas ?

Accumulation, résidus

Glyphosate accumulates in Roundup Ready GM soybeans
T. Bøhn, M. Cuhra, T. Traavik, M. Sanden, J .Fagan, R. Primicerio, 2014
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a … 4613019201

GM-soy contained high residues of glyphosate and AMPA (mean 3.3 and 5.7 mg/kg, respectively).


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#5 11-08-2018 09:24:12

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Re : Pesticides et OGM, dangereux ou pas ?

Comment Monsanto a caché la toxicité du glyphosate
Marie-Monique Robin
http://blog.m2rfilms.com/comment-monsan … lyphosate/


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#6 19-08-2018 21:21:54

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Re : Pesticides et OGM, dangereux ou pas ?

Contre les parasites, l'agriculture biologique serait plus efficace que les pesticides

Les cultures tomberaient moins malades sans les pesticides censés les protéger. Une révélation aux accents de révolution.
Par
Axel Leclercq -
Publié le 17 août 2018 à 11:56 - Mis à jour le 19 août 2018 à 11:23
https://positivr.fr/pesticides-moins-ef … VLetter+V2


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#7 19-09-2018 17:55:46

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Re : Pesticides et OGM, dangereux ou pas ?

17 Questions About Glyphosate
Posted on September 7, 2016
https://thoughtscapism.com/2016/09/07/1 … lyphosate/


LE POINT SUR LE GLYPHOSATE
https://axelkahn.fr/le-point-sur-le-glyphosate/


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#8 22-09-2018 16:36:58

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Re : Pesticides et OGM, dangereux ou pas ?

Réponse de Seralini & al. aux critiques
Reply to ‘Comments on two recent publications on GM maize and Roundup’
Michael N. Antoniou, Robin Mesnage, Sarah Agapito-Tenfen & Gilles-Eric Séralini, septembre 2018.
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-30751-9


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#9 07-10-2018 19:37:04

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Re : Pesticides et OGM, dangereux ou pas ?

Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases II: Celiac sprue and gluten intolerance
Anthony Samsel and Stephanie Seneff
Complet : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3945755/

Celiac disease, and, more generally, gluten intolerance, is a growing problem worldwide, but especially in North America and Europe, where an estimated 5% of the population now suffers from it. Symptoms include nausea, diarrhea, skin rashes, macrocytic anemia and depression. It is a multifactorial disease associated with numerous nutritional deficiencies as well as reproductive issues and increased risk to thyroid disease, kidney failure and cancer. Here, we propose that glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide, Roundup®, is the most important causal factor in this epidemic. Fish exposed to glyphosate develop digestive problems that are reminiscent of celiac disease. Celiac disease is associated with imbalances in gut bacteria that can be fully explained by the known effects of glyphosate on gut bacteria. Characteristics of celiac disease point to impairment in many cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are involved with detoxifying environmental toxins, activating vitamin D3, catabolizing vitamin A, and maintaining bile acid production and sulfate supplies to the gut. Glyphosate is known to inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes. Deficiencies in iron, cobalt, molybdenum, copper and other rare metals associated with celiac disease can be attributed to glyphosate's strong ability to chelate these elements. Deficiencies in tryptophan, tyrosine, methionine and selenomethionine associated with celiac disease match glyphosate's known depletion of these amino acids. Celiac disease patients have an increased risk to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which has also been implicated in glyphosate exposure. Reproductive issues associated with celiac disease, such as infertility, miscarriages, and birth defects, can also be explained by glyphosate. Glyphosate residues in wheat and other crops are likely increasing recently due to the growing practice of crop desiccation just prior to the harvest. We argue that the practice of “ripening” sugar cane with glyphosate may explain the recent surge in kidney failure among agricultural workers in Central America. We conclude with a plea to governments to reconsider policies regarding the safety of glyphosate residues in foods.

Glyphosate, a chelating agent—relevant for ecological risk assessment?
Martha Mertens,corresponding author Sebastian Höss, Günter Neumann, Joshua Afzal, and Wolfram Reichenbecher
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5823954/

Toxicity of formulants and heavy metals in glyphosate-b
Defarge N1, Spiroux de Vendômois J2, Séralini GE1.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29321978

Ethoxylated adjuvants of glyphosate-based herbicides are active principles of human cell toxicity.
Mesnage R1, Bernay B, Séralini GE.ased herbicides and other pesticides.
Toxicology. 2013 Nov 16;313(2-3):122-8. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2012.09.006. Epub 2012 Sep 21.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23000283

Facts and Fallacies in the Debate on Glyphosate Toxicity.
Mesnage R1, Antoniou MN1.
Front Public Health. 2017 Nov 24;5:316. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2017.00316. eCollection 2017.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29226121

Impacts of glyphosate-based herbicides on disease resistance and health of crops: a review.
Martinez DA1, Loening UE2, Graham MC3.
Environ Sci Eur. 2018;30(1):2. doi: 10.1186/s12302-018-0131-7. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29387519


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#10 14-10-2018 14:18:23

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Re : Pesticides et OGM, dangereux ou pas ?

Kurenbach, B., Marjoshi, D., Amabile-Cuevas, C.F., Ferguson, G.C., Godsoe, W., Gibson, P. and Heinemann, J.A. 2015.
Sub-lethal exposure to commercial formulations of the herbicides dicamba, 2,4-D and glyphosate cause changes in antibiotic susceptibility in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.
Mbio 6, e00009-00015.

Kurenbach, B., Gibson, P.S., Hill, A.M., Bitzer, A.S., Silby, M.W., Godsoe, W. and Heinemann, J.A. 2017.
Herbicide ingredients change Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium and Escherichia coli antibiotic responses.
Microbiology 163, 1791-1801.


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#11 21-10-2018 16:43:08

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June 3, 2018
GMO Golden Rice Offers No Nutritional Benefits Says FDA
https://www.independentsciencenews.org/ … vH_N_TAd3s


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