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#51 09-04-2018 17:50:46

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

Quelques études trouvées autour de la notion de conscience animale à l'occasion d'une discussion houleuse sur Facebook.



Possible Levels of Animal Consciousness with Reference to Grey Parrots (Psittacus erithacus)
IM Pepperberg, SK Lynn - American Zoologist, 2000 - BioOne

Cartmill, M (2000). "Animal consciousness: some philosophical, methodological, and evolutionary problems". American Zoologist.

Animal consciousness, cognition and welfare
JK Kirkwood, R Hubrecht - Animal Welfare, 2001 - ingentaconnect.com

Bekoff, Marc (2003). "Consciousness and Self in Animals: Some Reflections"

New evidence of animal consciousness
DR Griffin, GB Speck - Animal cognition, 2004 - Springer

Consciousness, emotion and animal welfare: insights from cognitive science
M Mendl, ES Paul - Animal Welfare, 2004 - ingentaconnect.com

Seth, A.K. and Baars, B.J. (2005) "Neural Darwinism and consciousness". Consciousness and Cognition

Animal consciousness
C Allen, M Bekoff - The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness, 2007 - books.google.com

Merker, B (2007). "Consciousness without a cerebral cortex: A challenge for neuroscience and medicine". Behavioral and Brain Sciences.
Peter Århem; B. I. B. Lindahl; Paul R. Manger & Ann B. Butler (2008). "On the origin of consciousness—some amniote scenarios".

A neuropsychological and evolutionary approach to animal consciousness and animal suffering
B Bermond - The animal ethics reader, 2008 - books.google.com

Animal consciousness: a synthetic approach
DB Edelman, AK Seth - Trends in neurosciences, 2009 - Elsevier

Hobson, J. A. (2009). "REM sleep and dreaming: towards a theory of protoconsciousness"

Kuiken, Don (2010). "Primary and secondary consciousness during dreaming". International Journal of Dream Research.

Colin Allen. Edward N. Zalta, ed. "Animal consciousness". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2011 Edition).

Consciousness in Human and non-Human Animals, Francis Crick Memorial Conference, 7 July 2012, Cambridge, UK.

Cazzolla Gatti, Roberto (2015). "Self-consciousness: beyond the looking-glass and what dogs found there". Ethology Ecology & Evolution.

A human brain network derived from coma-causing brainstem lesions
David B. Fischer, November 04, 2016

We compared 12 coma-causing brainstem lesions to 24 control brainstem lesions using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping in a case-control design to identify a site significantly associated with coma. We next used resting-state functional connectivity from a healthy cohort to identify a network of regions functionally connected to this brainstem site. We further investigated the cortical regions of this network by comparing their spatial topography to that of known networks and by evaluating their functional connectivity in patients with disorders of consciousness.

Barron, A.B.; Klein, C. (2016). "What insects can tell us about the origins of consciousness". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.


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#52 09-04-2018 20:23:35

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

Vu qu'outre sa mauvaise foi, la discussion brassait quand même quelques idées intéressantes...


https://www.facebook.com/lemythevegetar … &ref=notif


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#53 20-04-2018 15:18:54

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Rolf Degen
@DegenRolf
A guilty conscience makes women, but not men, underreport how much meat they consumed, pretending they are not really true carnivores.
https://twitter.com/DegenRolf/status/987213959114739712

“But I Don’t Eat that Much Meat”
Situational Underreporting of Meat Consumption by Women
Hank Rothgerber
Society & Animals
April 2018


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#54 29-04-2018 15:11:18

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Whole Eggs Can Boost Your Beta-Carotene and Vitamin E Uptake from Veggie Salad W/ Oil Dressing by 400%-700%
https://suppversity.blogspot.fr/2016/09 … otene.html

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#55 30-04-2018 20:23:24

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Brain food: Clever eating
Sujata Gupta
Consumption of animals helped hominins to grow bigger brains. But in a world rich with food, how necessary is meat?
https://www.nature.com/articles/531S12a#pq=QBvKGB

Animal source foods have a positive impact on the primary school test scores of Kenyan schoolchildren in a cluster-randomised, controlled feeding intervention trial
Judie L. Hulett, Robert E. Weiss, Nimrod O. Bwibo, Osman M. Galal, 2013
https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals … C12F08DCCA

Micronutrient deficiencies and suboptimal energy intake are widespread in rural Kenya, with detrimental effects on child growth and development. Sporadic school feeding programmes rarely include animal source foods (ASF). In the present study, a cluster-randomised feeding trial was undertaken to determine the impact of snacks containing ASF on district-wide, end-term standardised school test scores and nutrient intake. A total of twelve primary schools were randomly assigned to one of three isoenergetic feeding groups (a local plant-based stew (githeri) with meat, githeri plus whole milk or githeri with added oil) or a control group receiving no intervention feeding. After the initial term that served as baseline, children were fed at school for five consecutive terms over two school years from 1999 to 2001. Longitudinal analysis was used controlling for average energy intake, school attendance, and baseline socio-economic status, age, sex and maternal literacy. Children in the Meat group showed significantly greater improvements in test scores than those in all the other groups, and the Milk group showed significantly greater improvements in test scores than the Plain Githeri (githeri+oil) and Control groups. Compared with the Control group, the Meat group showed significant improvements in test scores in Arithmetic, English, Kiembu, Kiswahili and Geography. The Milk group showed significant improvements compared with the Control group in test scores in English, Kiswahili, Geography and Science. Folate, Fe, available Fe, energy per body weight, vitamin B12, Zn and riboflavin intake were significant contributors to the change in test scores. The greater improvements in test scores of children receiving ASF indicate improved academic performance, which can result in greater academic achievement.

Earliest Porotic Hyperostosis on a 1.5-Million-Year-Old Hominin, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania
Manuel Domínguez-Rodrigo, Travis Rayne Pickering, Fernando Diez-Martín, Audax Mabulla, Charles Musiba, Gonzalo Trancho, Enrique Baquedano, Henry T. Bunn, Doris Barboni, Manuel Santonja, David Uribelarrea, Gail M. Ashley, María del Sol Martínez-Ávila, Carmen Arriaza, 2012
Published: October 3, 2012
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/articl … ne.0046414

Meat-eating was an important factor affecting early hominin brain expansion, social organization and geographic movement. Stone tool butchery marks on ungulate fossils in several African archaeological assemblages demonstrate a significant level of carnivory by Pleistocene hominins, but the discovery at Olduvai Gorge of a child's pathological cranial fragments indicates that some hominins probably experienced scarcity of animal foods during various stages of their life histories. The child's parietal fragments, excavated from 1.5-million-year-old sediments, show porotic hyperostosis, a pathology associated with anemia. Nutritional deficiencies, including anemia, are most common at weaning, when children lose passive immunity received through their mothers' milk. Our results suggest, alternatively, that (1) the developmentally disruptive potential of weaning reached far beyond sedentary Holocene food-producing societies and into the early Pleistocene, or that (2) a hominin mother's meat-deficient diet negatively altered the nutritional content of her breast milk to the extent that her nursing child ultimately died from malnourishment. Either way, this discovery highlights that by at least 1.5 million years ago early human physiology was already adapted to a diet that included the regular consumption of meat.

Adaptive Evolution of the FADS Gene Cluster within Africa
    Rasika A. Mathias ,
    Wenqing Fu,
    Joshua M. Akey,
    Hannah C. Ainsworth,
    Dara G. Torgerson,
    Ingo Ruczinski,
    Susan Sergeant,
    Kathleen C. Barnes,
    Floyd H. Chilton

PLOS

    Published: September 19, 2012
   http://journals.plos.org/plosone/articl … ne.0044926

Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are essential for brain structure, development, and function, and adequate dietary quantities of LC-PUFAs are thought to have been necessary for both brain expansion and the increase in brain complexity observed during modern human evolution. Previous studies conducted in largely European populations suggest that humans have limited capacity to synthesize brain LC-PUFAs such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from plant-based medium chain (MC) PUFAs due to limited desaturase activity. Population-based differences in LC-PUFA levels and their product-to-substrate ratios can, in part, be explained by polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster, which have been associated with increased conversion of MC-PUFAs to LC-PUFAs. Here, we show evidence that these high efficiency converter alleles in the FADS gene cluster were likely driven to near fixation in African populations by positive selection ∼85 kya. We hypothesize that selection at FADS variants, which increase LC-PUFA synthesis from plant-based MC-PUFAs, played an important role in allowing African populations obligatorily tethered to marine sources for LC-PUFAs in isolated geographic regions, to rapidly expand throughout the African continent 60–80 kya.

Fatty Acid Metabolism in Carriers of Apolipoprotein E Epsilon 4 Allele: Is It Contributing to Higher Risk of Cognitive Decline and Coronary Heart Disease?
Raphaël Chouinard-Watkins and Mélanie Plourde, 2014
http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/6/10/4452

Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a protein playing a pivotal role in lipid homeostasis since it regulates cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipid metabolism in the blood and the brain. APOE gene regulates the expression of this protein and has three different alleles: ε2, ε3 and ε4. Carrying an APOE4 allele is recognised as a genetic risk factor of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) and coronary heart disease (CHD). Consuming fatty fish, rich in long chain omega-3 fatty acids (LC omega-3), seems to be associated with risk reduction of developing LOAD and CHD but this link seems not to hold in APOE4 carriers, at least in LOAD. In CHD trials, APOE4 carriers supplemented with LC omega-3 were categorized as differential responders to the treatment with regards to CHD risk markers. This is potentially because fatty acid metabolism is disturbed in APOE4 carriers compared to the non-carriers. More specifically, homeostasis of LC omega-3 is disrupted in carriers of APOE4 allele and this is potentially because they β-oxidize more LC omega-3 than the non-carriers. Therefore, there is a potential shift in fatty acid selection for β-oxidation towards LC omega-3 which are usually highly preserved for incorporation into cell membranes


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#56 03-05-2018 13:55:38

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

La viande ou la bête
Noélie Vialles, 1988
https://journals.openedition.org/terrain/2932

Plan
La question des abats
Le mangeur de viande : le « sarcophage ». Le dégoût des abats
La substance et les organes
Oublier la bête
Le mangeur de bêtes : le zoophage
Au plus près des bêtes
Un concentré de vie
L'articulation des deux logiques : l'épreuve du végétarisme. Deux modalités de la négation
Le dilemme
Les définitions du semblable
L'homme du difficile compromis


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#57 04-05-2018 18:30:30

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Rolf Degen
@DegenRolf

Pictures of baby animals temporarily suppressed the appetite for meat - but almost exclusively among women.

https://twitter.com/DegenRolf/status/992419588020342784

Are Baby Animals Less Appetizing? Tenderness toward Baby Animals and Appetite for Meat
Jared Piazza, Neil McLatchie & Cecilie Olesen, 2018
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10. … 18.1455456

DcXIWVDW4AAp3f6.jpg


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#58 11-05-2018 21:44:43

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Un groupe d'experts conteste les bienfaits du végétalisme pour la santé
https://pages.rts.ch/la-1ere/programmes … diaShare=1


Régimes végétaliens: analyse des avantages et des inconvénients sur le plan nutritionnel et pour la santé (COFA, 2018)
https://www.eek.admin.ch/eek/fr/home/pu … ients.html


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#59 24-05-2018 08:25:33

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Mythe de l'homme nu et réductionnisme à la B12

La complémentation en vitamine B12 est indispensable pour les véganes
https://www.vivelab12.fr/

La satisfaction de nos besoins a longtemps reposé sur la consommation d’animaux symbiotiques (ou de leurs prédateurs), tels que les limaces et escargots, les vers et larves, les insectes et coquillages, ou tout animal malhabile facile à attraper. Faute de crocs, de griffes et d’autres capacités physiques propres aux prédateurs sauvages, les grands animaux ne sont devenus accessibles à la consommation humaine qu’à partir de l’invention des techniques de piégeage, de chasse et de pêche. Ces pratiques culturelles ont progressivement été perfectionnées, mais depuis 10 000 ans, une nouvelle invention technique remplace une partie des prélèvements dans les milieux naturels : l’élevage.

Pour satisfaire ses besoins en vitamine B12, l’espèce humaine était dépendante de la récolte de petits animaux malhabiles, puis de la chasse et enfin de l’élevage. La découverte des méthodes de culture bactérienne de la vitamine B12 a techniquement libéré l’espèce humaine de cette condition initiale. Nous pouvons désormais vivre sans utiliser les animaux.


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#60 25-05-2018 00:10:07

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Comment nous sommes redevenus cannibales
Par Philippe Douroux, Photo Roberto Frankenberg — 23 mai 2018 à 17:06 (mis à jour à 18:33)
http://www.liberation.fr/debats/2018/05 … 1527102058


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#61 27-05-2018 16:22:56

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Des erreurs mais pas mal de sources intéressantes.

30 avril 2016
Le véganisme, une religion post-moderne, par Ailanthus

http://imposteurs.over-blog.com/2016/04 … nthus.html


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#62 27-05-2018 20:40:39

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Cahiers antispécistes n°41

CA n°41 - [Livre] - Éliminer les animaux pour leur bien: promenade chez les réducteurs de la souffrance dans la nature
mai 2018
Les Cahiers antispécistes > CA n°41 - [Livre] - Éliminer les animaux pour leur bien: promenade chez les réducteurs de la souffrance dans la nature
http://www.cahiers-antispecistes.org/nu … leur-bien/


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#63 09-06-2018 07:46:01

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Rolf Degen
@DegenRolf

Disproportionately many vegans are women, politically liberals, and atheists. And a majority of vegetarians/vegans return to eating meat.


https://twitter.com/DegenRolf/status/10 … 7209978880

DfLGxxdWAAAkoiK.jpg

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Seven unflattering truths about vegetarians
https://plus.google.com/101046916407340 … 5vGejoQAmC

The Politics and the Demographics of Veganism: Notes for a Critical Analysis
https://link.springer.com/article/10.10 … 018-9543-3


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#64 12-06-2018 20:18:07

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Consommation de viande au moyen âge.


La viande. Ravitaillement et consommation à Carpentras au XVe siècle
sem-linkLouis Stouff
Annales Année 1969
https://www.persee.fr/doc/ahess_0395-26 … 4_6_422178


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#65 23-06-2018 14:33:50

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L'anatomie pour les nuls et les végétariens
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TqCiNdk … e=youtu.be


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#66 20-07-2018 22:35:50

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Why Vegetarians and Vegans Should Supplement with DHA

on September 13, 2016 by Chris Kresser
https://chriskresser.com/why-vegetarian … paign=blog


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#67 09-08-2018 19:25:45

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Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Predicted Cardiovascular Disease Risk in an Urban Mexican Adult Population
Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez Katherine L Tucker Mario Flores Simón Barquera Jorge Salmerón, 2016
https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/146/1/90/4616080

Plant Protein and Animal Proteins: Do They Differentially Affect Cardiovascular Disease Risk?
Chesney K Richter, Ann C Skulas-Ray Catherine M Champagne and Penny M Kris-Etherton, 2015
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26567196

Conclusion

The 2010 DGAC’s evidence review stated that there is only limited and inconsistent evidence for a differential effect of plant-based compared with animal-based protein, and the 2015 DGAC has not updated this statement. However, despite its limitations, the current evidence base has identified key factors that require consideration when evaluating comparisons of plant and animal protein, designing future studies, and updating dietary guidelines. It is likely that cultural and individual preference variations in the background diet, the specific food source and concomitant compounds ingested with the protein, and how the food is prepared all play a key role in determining whether that type of protein has beneficial cardiovascular effects. For both intermediate risk factors (e.g., blood pressure) and CVD risk outcomes, inverse associations with plant or animal protein may particularly depend on the type of carbohydrate (i.e., refined compared with complex) being replaced by greater protein consumption or the type of animal protein consumed (i.e., red meat or fish). Specific plant protein sources such as soy were also shown to lower cholesterol, but there is not similar evidence for other plant-based sources of protein and this effect of soy may be due to components other than protein. Even with greater specificity and characterization of plant and animal protein sources, the unique nutrition profiles and bioactives provided in the whole-food matrix make direct comparisons particularly challenging. Although the DASH diet and OmniHeart high-protein DASH diet variation demonstrate the beneficial effects of increasing plant-based food consumption, these benefits cannot be attributed solely to plant protein because these dietary patterns include multiple components. These studies also were not designed specifically to compare plant and animal protein and did not include a matched comparator diet that differed only in the source of protein. Similarly, although the BOLD study demonstrated that a DASH diet variation that incorporated lean beef can elicit similar cardiovascular benefits, the intervention diets contained different plant and animal sources of protein (e.g., lean beef compared with other animal sources) and cannot conclusively address the question of differential effects.


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#68 11-08-2018 09:28:01

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Interview
Florence Burgat : «Pour se rappeler qu’elle s’est séparée des animaux, l’humanité les mange»
Par Diane Lisarelli — 23 juin 2017 à 18:36
http://www.liberation.fr/debats/2017/06 … ge_1579126

Je fais l’hypothèse que si l’humanité cesse d’être carnivore, ce sera contrainte et forcée, et sans s’en apercevoir. On peut, je crois, miser sur les ressources de la cuisine, comme le montrent les simili-carnés inventés en Chine au Xe siècle. Il existe aujourd’hui tout un artisanat ou une industrie qui, à partir de tofu, de champignons, etc., imite nombre de produits carnés, mais aussi de fromages, et pourraient très bien les remplacer. Or, si l’humanité mange de la viande, c’est pour manger les animaux, une très grande majorité ne souhaite pas sortir de cette relation sanglante. Il y a ce que Derrida appelle une «structure sacrificielle» au sens structuraliste du terme, c’est-à-dire un invariant, un donné premier, mais dont les éléments peuvent varier pour autant que les relations qui les unissent demeurent. C’est là qu’intervient dans ma réflexion le marketing, qui joue un rôle absolument central. C’est lui qui, à partir des simili-carnés, aurait à convaincre les carnivores qui n’ont pas du tout envie de cesser de l’être que cette boucherie continue, que la viande est toujours là. Je crois puissamment à ce que l’on pourrait appeler l’«organisation d’un mensonge». Mais un mensonge en tous points comparable au mensonge actuel qui va dans le sens de la boucherie et qui nous montre par exemple sur des paquets de fromage une chèvre et son petit alors que l’on sait bien que l’on tue les chevreaux pour avoir du lait.
Mais pourquoi «organiser un mensonge» au lieu de dire la vérité ?

La minorité de végétariens ou végétaliens est appelée à grandir, certes. Mais des gens qui sont sensibles à la condition animale, qui jugent les images d’abattoirs abominables, ne désirent pas arrêter de manger de la viande pour autant. On doit alors s’interroger sur les motifs de cet attachement à la mise à mort des animaux. Il faut tenir compte de cette résistance et continuer à faire croire que la boucherie ne mourra pas si, un jour, de la viande cultivée, que le marketing pourrait nommer «viande fraîche», est largement commercialisée.


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#69 02-09-2018 14:40:46

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Field Deaths in Plant Agriculture
Bob Fischer, Andy Lamey
Accepted: 11 May 2018
Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018
https://sci-hub.tw/10.1007/s10806-018-9733-8


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#70 24-09-2018 04:18:11

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Programme du REV. Droit des animaux.

Droits des animaux
vers la fin de l’exploitation des animaux non humains

https://rev-parti.fr/droits-des-animaux/


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#71 02-10-2018 13:30:19

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Of Evolution, Culture, and the Obstetrical Dilemma
Anthropologists are revisiting long-held beliefs about human evolution and the difficulty of human childbirth.
11.29.2017 / By Josie Glausiusz
https://undark.org/article/obstetrical- … hildbirth/


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#72 08-10-2018 09:50:37

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in an exclusively breastfed 5-month-old Italian infant born to a mother receiving multivitamin supplementation during pregnancy
Sophie Guez, Gabriella Chiarelli, Francesca Menni, Simona Salera, Nicola Principi and Susanna EspositoEmail author
BMC Pediatrics201212:85
https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2431-12-85
©  Guez et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012

Floppy baby with macrocytic anemia and vegan mother
Schlapbach LJ, Schütz B, Nuoffer JM, Brekenfeld C, Müller G, Fluri S 
Praxis [01 Aug 2007, 96(35):1309-1314]
Type: Comparative Study, Journal Article, English Abstract, Case Reports (lang: ger)
DOI: 10.1024/1661-8157.96.35.1309
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18293883

We report the case of a 7 month-old girl that presented with acute anemia, generalized muscular hypotonia and failure to thrive. Laboratory evaluation revealed cobalamin deficiency, due to a vegan diet of the mother. The clinical triad of an acquired floppy baby syndrome with megaloblastic anemia and failure to thrive is pathognomic for infantile cobalamin deficiency. Neurological abnormalities are often irreversible and may be associated with delayed myelinization in the MRI. A normal cobalamin level in maternal serum and absence of anemia do not exclude subclinical deficiency. If cobalamin deficiency is suspected, e.g. in pregnant women on vegan diet, urinary methylmalonic acid excretion and plasma homocysteine levels should be determined and cobalamin substitution should be started at an early stage to avoid potentially irreversible damage of the fetus.


Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as acute ataxia.
Crawford JR1, Say D.
BMJ Case Rep. 2013 Mar 26;2013. pii: bcr2013008840. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2013-008840.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23536622

A dietary history revealed the child subscribed to a restrictive vegan diet with little to no intake of animal products or other fortified foods.


Coma and respiratory failure in a child with severe vitamin B(12) deficiency.
Codazzi D1, Sala F, Parini R, Langer M.
Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2005 Jul;6(4):483-5.

The baby had been exclusively breast-fed, but his mother had been a strict vegan for 10 yrs. Chronic dietary vitamin B(12) deprivation was confirmed by blood and urinary samples. Treatment with vitamin B(12) led in 2 wks to rapid and complete hematological improvement and to partial regression of neurologic symptoms. During the following 3 yrs the boy had normal vitamin intake and underwent intensive rehabilitative treatment. The brain atrophy regressed, but linguistic and psychomotor delay persisted.

Maternal vegan diet causing a serious infantile neurological disorder due to vitamin B12 deficiency
    T. KühneR. BublR. Baumgartner
European Journal of Pediatrics
January 1991, Volume 150, Issue 3, pp 205–2087
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01963568
https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/1 … 963568.pdf

Veganism as a cause of iodine deficient hypothyroidism.
Yeliosof O1, Silverman LA2.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Jan 26;31(1):91-94. doi: 10.1515/jpem-2017-0082.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29303778

[Vegetarian Diets in Children? - An Assessment from Pediatrics and Nutrition Science].
[Article in German]
Kersting M, Kalhoff H#, Melter M#, Lücke T#.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29471576

Acute small bowel obstruction in a child with a strict raw vegan diet.
Amoroso S1, Scarpa MG2, Poropat F3, Giorgi R3, Murru FM4, Barbi E1,3.
Arch Dis Child. 2018 May 14. pii: archdischild-2018-314910. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2018-314910. [Epub ahead of print]
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29760008

Vegetarian diets in children: a systematic review.
Schürmann S1, Kersting M1, Alexy U2.
Eur J Nutr. 2017 Aug;56(5):1797-1817. doi: 10.1007/s00394-017-1416-0. Epub 2017 Mar 15.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28299420

Due to the study heterogeneity, the small samples, the bias towards upper social classes, and the scarcity of recent studies, the existing data do not allow us to draw firm conclusions on health benefits or risks of present-day vegetarian type diets on the nutritional or health status of children and adolescents in industrialized countries.

Vegan-vegetarian diets in pregnancy: danger or panacea? A systematic narrative review.
Piccoli GB, Clari R, Vigotti FN, Leone F, Attini R, Cabiddu G, Mauro G, Castelluccia N, Colombi N, Capizzi I, Pani A, Todros T, Avagnina P.
BJOG. 2015 Apr;122(5):623-33. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.13280. Epub 2015 Jan 20.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25600902

The evidence on vegan-vegetarian diets in pregnancy is heterogeneous and scant. The lack of randomised studies prevents us from distinguishing the effects of diet from confounding factors. Within these limits, vegan-vegetarian diets may be considered safe in pregnancy, provided that attention is paid to vitamin and trace element requirements.

Docosahexaenoic acid and human brain development: evidence that a dietary supply is needed for optimal development.
Brenna JT1, Carlson SE2.
J Hum Evol. 2014 Dec;77:99-106. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2014.02.017. Epub 2014 Apr 26.

Modern human brains accumulate DHA up to age 18, most aggressively from about half-way through gestation to about two years of age. Studies in modern humans and non-human primates show that modern infants consuming infant formulas that include only DHA precursors have lower DHA levels than for those with a source of preformed DHA. Functional measures show that infants consuming preformed DHA have improved visual and cognitive function. Dietary preformed DHA in the breast milk of modern mothers supports many-fold greater breast milk DHA than is found in the breast milk of vegans, a phenomenon linked to consumption of shore-based foods. Most current evidence suggests that the DHA-rich human brain required an ample and sustained source of dietary DHA to reach its full potential.

alpha-Linolenic acid supplementation and conversion to n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in humans.
Brenna JT1, Salem N Jr, Sinclair AJ, Cunnane SC; International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids, ISSFAL.
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2009 Feb-Mar;80(2-3):85-91. doi: 10.1016/j.plefa.2009.01.004. Epub 2009 Mar 9.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19269799

no level of ALA tested raises DHA to levels achievable with preformed DHA at intakes similar to typical human milk DHA supply. The DHA status of infants and adults consuming preformed DHA in their diets is, on average, greater than that of people who do not consume DHA.


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#73 08-10-2018 19:26:58

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency: cause for neurological symptoms in infancy
(PMID:17729202)
Lücke T , Korenke GC , Poggenburg I , Bentele KH , Das AM , Hartmann H 
Zeitschrift fur Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie [01 Aug 2007, 211(4):157-161]
Type: Journal Article, English Abstract, Case Reports (lang: ger)
DOI: 10.1055/s-2007-981249
https://europepmc.org/abstract/med/17729202


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#74 08-10-2018 20:28:06

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

Un article de Julien Venesson

L’homme est-il végétarien par nature ?
26/08/2014
https://www.santenatureinnovation.com/l … ar-nature/


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#75 08-10-2018 21:04:55

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Re : Végétarisme / véganisme

https://carta.anthropogeny.org/moca/top … ngth-ratio

In humans, the small intestine is about 6 meters or 20 feet long and the large intestine is about 1.5 meters or 5 feet long. The gastrointestinal tracts of the Chimpanzee, Orangutan, and adult human and a human fetus were studied and compared by Stevens and Hume in 1995. The chimpanzee intestines showed a longer appendix,  a much lower number of loops in the small intestine, and the large intestine had increased haustrations, as compared to humans. It is thought that reduction of the gut is a function of the higher-quality, easier to digest (i.e., less fibrous) diet of humans realtive to other apes, and that an evolutionary trend for gut reduction began when early members of the genus Homo began to incorporate a greater amount of animal tissues (marrow fat, brain matter, and muscle) about 2.5 million years ago.  Since gut tissue is metabolically expensive, the reduction of the gut may have allowed early members of our genus to devote greater metabolic energy to brain growth and maintenance, thus relaxing a constraint on the evolutionary increase in brain size ( an idea known as the "expensive tissue hypothesis": Aiello & Wheeler, 1995). It has also been suggested that cooking, which breaks down plants fiber (cellulose and lignin) and connective tissue in meat (collagen) allowed early humans to extract more nutri


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