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#51 03-04-2018 08:27:17

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Re : Recherche/Féminisme

Sujets de discussion sur les réseaux sociaux, hommes/femmes.
Etonné de ne pas y voir l'écologie, qui me semble très présente.

Data science of the facebook world
Stephen Wolfram, 2013
http://blog.stephenwolfram.com/2013/04/ … ook-world/

Cf7QIDmUEAIXQhr.jpg

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#52 06-04-2018 17:03:23

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Gender gap. Diana Fleishman
https://twitter.com/sentientist/status/ … 1538230274


Don’t mind the gap
04 Apr 2018
Dr Maja Založnik
https://www.ageing.ox.ac.uk/blog/gender-pay-

MJ_April2018_Fig2.jpg

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#53 10-04-2018 10:36:30

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Les éléphants ne réagissent pas de la même manière aux voix des hommes et des femmes masaï, montrant plus de signes d'inquiétude lorsque les voix sont mâles.

Elephants can determine ethnicity, gender, and age from acoustic cues in human voices
Karen McComb, Graeme Shannon, Katito N. Sayialel and Cynthia Moss
PNAS April 8, 2014.
http://www.pnas.org/content/111/14/5433

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#54 10-04-2018 11:05:35

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Freud Was a Fraud: A Triumph of Pseudoscience
https://sciencebasedmedicine.org/freud- … doscience/
Frederick Crews has written a reassessment of Freud based on newly available correspondence and re-evaluation of previously available materials. He shows that Freud was a fraud who deceived himself and succumbed to pseudoscience.
Harriet Hall on December 12, 2017

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#55 13-04-2018 18:12:01

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Malgré les politiques favorisant la pratique sportive féminine, plus de réduction de l'écart de performance hommes/femmes depuis presque 40 ans, après une légère réduction au moment de l'introduction de ces politiques :

Nature vs. Nurture: Have Performance Gaps Between Men and Women Reached an Asymptote?
https://journals.humankinetics.com/doi/ … .2017-0866

Men outperform women in sports requiring muscular strength and/or endurance, but the relative influence of “nurture” versus “nature” remains difficult to quantify. Performance gaps between elite men and women are well-documented using world records in second, centimeter or kilogram sports. However, this approach is biased by global disparity in reward structures and opportunities for women. Despite policies enhancing female participation (Title IX legislation), USA women only closed performance gaps by 2 and 5% in Olympic Trial swimming and running, respectively, from 1972 to 1980 (with no change thereafter through 2016). Performance gaps of 13% in elite mid-distance running and 8% in swimming (~4 min duration) remain, the 5% differential between sports indicative of load carriage disadvantages of higher female body fatness in running. Conversely, sprint swimming exhibits a greater sex difference than sprint running suggesting anthropometric/power advantages unique to swim block starts. The ~40 y plateau in the performance gap suggests a persistent dominance of biological influences (e.g., longer limb levers, greater muscle mass, aerobic capacity, lower fat mass) on performance. Current evidence suggests women will not swim or run as fast as men in Olympic events, which speaks against eliminating sex segregation in these individual sports. Whether hormone reassignment sufficiently levels the playing field in Olympic sports for transgender females (born and socialized male) remains an issue to be tackled by sport governing bodies.

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#56 13-04-2018 20:43:55

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Un point sur lequel le dimorphisme sexuel est plus important chez l'homme que chez pas mal d'autres primates : la voix.

Sexual selection on male vocal fundamental frequency in humans and other anthropoids
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ … 0.full.pdf

In many primates, including humans, the vocalizations of males and females
differ dramatically, with male vocalizations and vocal anatomy often seeming
to exaggerate apparent body size. These traits may be favoured by sexual selec-
tion because low-frequency male vocalizations intimidate rivals and/or attract
females, but this hypothesis has not been systematically tested across primates,
nor is it clear why competitors and potential mates should attend to vocaliza-
tion frequencies. Here we show across anthropoids that sexual dimorphism in
fundamental frequency (F0) increased during evolutionary transitions towards
polygyny, and decreased during transitions towards monogamy. Surpris-
ingly, humans exhibit greater F0 sexual dimorphism than any other ape. We
also show that low-F0 vocalizations predict perceptions of men’s dominance
and attractiveness, and predict hormone profiles (low cortisol and high testos-
terone) related to immune function. These results suggest that low male F0
signals condition to competitors and mates, and evolved in male anthropoids
in response to the intensity of mating competition.

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#57 20-04-2018 02:27:22

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#58 25-04-2018 15:03:02

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La différence de taille entre les hommes et les femmes diminue-t-elle ?

http://tpek2005.free.fr/Pages/Taille.htm
En 1996, les jeunes générations ont un peu plus de différences que les anciennes, mais l'écart se creuse dans les pour les génération nées vers le milieu du 20ème siècle, pour se réduire ensuite. La dernière cohorte donnée, née dans les années 70, ne semble pas réduire l'écart par rapport à la précédente, née dans les années 60.

En 2007, un article de l'Insee donne 1,75 pour les hommes, 1,63 pour les femmes, toutes générations confondues.
https://www.insee.fr/fr/statistiques/1280848

Insee en 2001
On passe de 9cm d'écart pour la plus ancienne génération (nés vers 1900) à 12cm (nés années 70).
http://courbedecroissance.com/fic/dossiers.php?c=23

En France, l’écart à l’avantage des hommes est de 12,2 cm en moyenne parmi les adultes alors qu’il n’était que de 9,7 cm en 1970. Les femmes âgées de 20-29 ans mesurent en moyenne 161,6 cm en 1970 et n’ont gagné que 3 cm en 2001. Parmi les hommes des mêmes âges, la taille moyenne atteint 172,5 cm en 1970 et 177,0 cm en 2001, soit un grandissement de 4,5 cm sur la même période de trente ans.

lesenfantssontilsdeplusenplusgrands.1.gif


Taille hommes et femmes en Europe du paléolithique supérieur à l'antiquité
(p) Stature of early Europeans
Michael Hermanussen, 2003
http://www.hormones.gr/~osenia62/pdf/St … opeans.pdf

How The Black Death Caused Medieval Women To Shrink
https://www.forbes.com/sites/kristinaki … c7e0a81c3b

In the middle of the 14th century, the Black Death swept Europe, killing millions of people, but archaeologists have recently discovered that its effects were far-ranging and surprising. People living after the plague were overall healthier than those who lived just before it, but a new study suggests that the Black Death may have caused Medieval women to shrink.

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#59 25-04-2018 16:26:20

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8,000 Years Ago, 17 Women Reproduced for Every One Man
An analysis of modern DNA uncovers a rough dating scene after the advent of agriculture.
Francie Diep
Mar 17, 2015
© 2018 The Social Justice Foundation
https://psmag.com/environment/17-to-1-r … ve-success

men-women-reproducingpng.png


A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture
Collectif, 2015
https://bib.irb.hr/datoteka/715300.2015 … ersity.pdf

It is commonly thought that human genetic diversity in non-African populations was shaped primarily by an out-of-Africa dispersal 50–100 thousand yr ago (kya). Here, we present a study of 456 geographically diverse high-coverage Y chromosome sequences, including 299 newly reported samples. Applying ancient DNA calibration, we date the Y-chromosomal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) in Africa at 254 (95% CI 192–307) kya and detect a cluster of major non-African founder haplogroups in a narrow time interval at 47–52 kya, consistent with a rapid initial colonization model of Eurasia and Oceania after the out-of-Africa bottleneck. In contrast to demographic reconstructions based on mtDNA, we infer a second strong bottleneck in Y-chromosome lineages dating to the last 10 ky. We hypothesize that this bottleneck is caused by cultural changes affecting variance of reproductive success among males.

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#60 25-04-2018 19:42:15

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Maxims or Myths of Beauty? A Meta-Analytic and Theoretical Review
Judith H. Langlois, Lisa Kalakanis, Adam J. Rubenstein, Andrea Larson, Monica HaUam, Monica'Smoot, 2000
http://jonathanstray.com/papers/Langlois.pdf


Common maxims about beauty suggest that attractiveness is not important in life. In contrast, both fitness-related evolutionary theory and socialization theory suggest that attractiveness influences devel- opment and interaction. In 11 meta-analyses, the authors evaluate these contradictory claims, demon- strating that (a) raters agree about who is and is not attractive, both within and across cultures; (b) attractive children and adults are judged more positively than unattractive children and adults, even by those who know them; (c) attractive children and adults are treated more positively than unattractive children and adults, even by those who know them; and (d) attractive children and adults exhibit more positive behaviors and traits than unattractive children and adults. Results are used to evaluate social and fitness-related evolutionary theories and the veracity of maxims about beauty

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#61 25-04-2018 19:55:58

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‘‘I am Not a Feminist,but. . .’’: Hegemony of a Meritocratic Ideology and the Limits of Critique Among Women in Engineering
https://sci-hub.tw/http://journals.sage … 8418759774

The unquestioned presumption of meritocracy and the invisibility of its muting effects on critiques resembles not hegemonic masculinity—for these women proudly celebrate their femininity—but a hegemony of meritocratic ideology

Page 3 :

A culture of engineering education that valorizes
technical prowess while denigrating social skills has significant conse-
quences for sex segregation in the workplace. Cech’s (2013) research
reveals that women are significantly more likely to be employed in
engineering subfields that more explicitly integrate social skills and
earn significantly less than their male counterparts who tend to be con-
centrated in more technical subfields.

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#62 25-04-2018 21:33:53

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Men’s status and reproductive success in 33 nonindustrial societies: Effects of subsistence, marriage system, and reproductive strategy
Christopher R. von Rueden and Adrian V. Jaeggi, 2016

Social status motivates much of human behavior. However, status
may have been a relatively weak target of selection for much of
human evolution if ancestral forager
s tended to be more egalitarian.
We test the

egalitarianism hypothesis

that status has a significantly
smaller effect on reproductive success (RS) in foragers compared with
nonforagers. We also test between
alternative male reproductive
strategies, in particular whether
reproductive benefits of status are
due to lower offspring mortality (parental investment) or increased
fertility (mating effort). We performed a phylogenetic multilevel
metaanalysis of 288 statistical associations between measures of
male status (physical formidability, hunting ability, material wealth,
political influence) and RS (mating success, wife quality, fertility, off-
spring mortality, and number of surviving offspring) from 46 studies
in 33 nonindustrial societies. We found a significant overall effect of
status on RS (
r
=
0.19), though this effect was significantly lower
than for nonhuman primates (
r
=
0.80). There was substantial vari-
ation due to marriage system and measure of RS, in particular status
associated with offspring mortality only in polygynous societies
(
r
=

0.08), and with wife quality only in monogamous societies
(
r
=
0.15). However, the effects of status on RS did not differ
significantly by status measure or subsistence type: foraging, hor-
ticulture, pastoralism, and agriculture. These results suggest that
traits that facilitate status acquisition were not subject to substan-
tially greater selection with domestication of plants and animals,
and are part of reproductive strategies that enhance fertility more
than offspring well-being.

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#63 26-04-2018 17:32:51

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Unintended Consequences of Invoking the “Natural” in Breastfeeding Promotion
Jessica Martucci, Anne Barnhill
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/c … /e20154154

Medical and public health organizations recommend that mothers exclusively breastfeed for at least 6 months. This recommendation is based on evidence of health benefits for mothers and babies, as well as developmental benefits for babies. A spate of recent work challenges the extent of these benefits, and ethical criticism of breastfeeding promotion as stigmatizing is also growing.1 Building on this critical work, we are concerned about breastfeeding promotion that praises breastfeeding as the “natural” way to feed infants. This messaging plays into a powerful perspective that “natural” approaches to health are better, a view examined in a recent report by the Nuffield Council on Bioethics.2 Promoting breastfeeding as “natural” may be ethically problematic, and, even more troublingly, it may bolster this belief that “natural” approaches are presumptively healthier. This may ultimately challenge public health’s aims in other contexts, particularly childhood vaccination.

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#64 30-04-2018 13:44:35

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Olivia Gazalé: «On ne naît pas homme, on le devient»

La philosophe Olivia Gazalé signe un livre simple et clair sur la construction de la virilité de la préhistoire à nos jours, laquelle explique en partie la perpétuation des inégalités hommes-femmes tout en enfermant les hommes dans leur propre piège
https://www.letemps.ch/societe/olivia-g … on-devient

On a tendance à croire que la domination patriarcale, ou viriarcale, est naturelle, correspondant à la plus grande force physique des hommes. Or, dans certaines civilisations de la préhistoire – étrusque, égyptienne, celte… – il n’y avait pas de suprématie masculine. Dans ces sociétés matrilinéaires, les femmes disposaient de larges prérogatives: le droit à l’instruction, à la libre circulation, à exercer des fonctions politiques et religieuses. Selon une hypothèse défendue par plusieurs anthropologues, dont Françoise Héritier, pendant des dizaines de milliers d’années, on ignorait le rôle fécondant du sperme. Les femmes qui procréaient étaient considérées comme porteuses de pouvoirs surnaturels.

Ensuite, lorsque l’homme a commencé à élever les animaux au lieu de les chasser, durant les derniers millénaires avant notre ère, il a compris le mécanisme de la procréation. On est passé d’une conception monosexuée de la procréation à une conception bisexuée. Ces sociétés deviennent alors patrilinéaires: c’est par le père que se transmet le nom. Quant à la femme, elle est considérée comme un réceptacle passif dans lequel se développe l’enfant. Aristote imagine ainsi la théorie des homoncules, petits êtres préformés dans le sperme, simplement déposés dans le ventre maternel. Mais l’homme prend alors conscience qu’il court le risque de donner son nom à un enfant qui n’est pas de son sang. C’est donc pour s’assurer de la pureté de la filiation qu’il va s’approprier le ventre de la femme, la domestiquer et l’enfermer dans la sphère privée, en la privant de tous ses droits et libertés.

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#65 02-05-2018 16:32:33

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Do men vary more than women in personality? A study in 51 cultures
Peter Borkenau, Robert R.McCrae, Antonio Terracciano

Do men vary more than women in personality? Evolutionary, genetic, and cultural arguments suggest that hypothesis. In this study we tested it using 12,156 college student raters from 51 cultures who described a person they knew well on the 3rd-person version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. In most cultures, male targets varied more than female targets, and ratings by female informants varied more than ratings by male informants, which may explain why higher variances for men are not found in self-reports. Variances were higher in more developed, and effects of target sex were stronger in more individualistic societies. It seems that individualistic cultures enable a less restricted expression of personality, resulting in larger variances and particularly so among men.
Highlights

► We studied effects of sex on the variances in personality descriptions. ► Informant reports of personality varied more for male than for female targets. ► Descriptions by female informants varied more than descriptions by male informants. ► Across 51 cultures, both effects were stronger in more individualistic societies.

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#66 03-05-2018 07:39:28

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Thread sur l'accès à l'éducation des filles/femmes aux Etats-Unis, avec plein de stats.

https://twitter.com/PsychRabble/status/ … 1848541184

DcPFaRoV0AMLUAi.jpg

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#67 03-05-2018 08:31:10

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Rolf Degen
@DegenRolf

"We confirmed a puzzling gender difference: men cooperate much more than women" [in a repeated Prisoner Game]. Also, cooperation doesn't fade over time, as previously thought.
https://twitter.com/DegenRolf/status/991615747993538561

Persistent cooperation and gender differences in repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games: Some things never change
Andrew M. Colman, , Briony D. Pulford , Eva M. Krockow
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a … 1817305917

DcLtPN8XkAAPZ7p.jpg

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#68 06-05-2018 17:30:49

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Beauty: Culture-Specific or Universally Defined?
The universality of some beauty markers.
Posted Apr 06, 2010
https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/ho … ly-defined

Symmetric faces are construed as more beautiful than asymmetric faces in all cultures (irrespective of the race of the person being evaluated and the race of the evaluator). You can visit Bedouins in the Middle East, the Yanomamo in the Amazon, and Inuits in the Canadian north, and they will all agree as to who is or is not beautiful (based on facial features). Clear skin is a universal preference. Certain morphological features that connote masculinity (square jaw) or femininity (high-cheek bones) are universally preferred. Rotund Rubanesque women, heavier women preferred in Central Africa, and catwalk thin models, while varying greatly in terms of their weight, all tend to have hourglass figures that correspond roughly to a waist-to-hip ratio of 0.70 (although cultural settings can slightly alter that preference). Babies who are insufficiently cognitively developed to be influenced by socialization gaze at symmetric faces for longer periods than they do at asymmetric ones.


The 'Brad Pitt' effect: Why female bonobos can't help falling for the charms of the most attractive male

    Scientists studied a group of bonobos in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
    Certain males had a strong advantage when it came to fathering offspring
    The most successful male fathered more than 60% of the next generation
    The researchers suggest that females bonobos may choose to mate with the same attractive male
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/ … -male.html

Mate competition, testosterone and intersexual relationships in bonobos, Pan paniscus
Martin Surbeck, Tobias Deschner, Grit Schubert, Anja Weltring, Gottfried Hohmann
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a … 7211005495

► In bonobo males, aggression correlates with rank and mating success. ► Aggression frequency increases in the presence of potentially fertile females. ► Low-ranking males have stronger increase in testosterone during mate competition. ► Quality of intersexual relationships correlates negatively with testosterone levels.

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#69 08-05-2018 15:49:16

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Études et statistiques de la Depp
La plus-value de la première année de CPGE scientifiques sur les performances en mathématiques et en physique
http://www.education.gouv.fr/cid110024/ … sique.html

En termes de performance, l’étude en terminale S a montré de fortes différences entre filles et garçons, à l’avantage des garçons aussi bien en mathématiques qu’en physique. Alors que les filles sont moins nombreuses en CPGE scientifiques qu’en terminale S, on pourrait s’attendre à ce que l’écart se resserre entre performance moyenne des uns et des autres. Ce n’est pas le cas. Le taux moyen de réussite à l’ensemble des items est de 65 % pour les filles et de 70 % pour les garçons en mathématiques (figure 7) et de 50 % pour les filles et de 55 % pour les garçons en physique (figure 8). L’écart constaté en terminale S est du même ordre.

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#70 09-05-2018 16:23:54

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Aux Etats-Unis, espérance de vie à 40 ans montre une différence entre sexes bien plus grande chez les pauvres que chez les riches.

espc3a9rance-de-vie1.jpg?w=700

En France, à la naissance :
espc3a9rance-de-vie-selon-revenus-france.png?w=768

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#71 10-05-2018 07:36:48

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how-men-women-rate-each-other-large.jpg

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#72 12-05-2018 07:55:33

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Steve Stewart-Williams
@SteveStuWill

Sex differences in believing bullshit: Women are overrepresented in ghost-related bullshit, men in alien bullshit
https://twitter.com/SteveStuWill/status … 9916035073

Dc8yiBzU8AEYr5A.jpg

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#73 13-05-2018 08:08:48

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Mobile women were key to cultural exchange in Stone Age and Bronze Age Europe
September 4, 2017, Max Planck Society
https://phys.org/news/2017-09-mobile-wo … hange.html

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#74 13-05-2018 10:13:48

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Strong women did a lot of the heavy lifting in ancient farming societies
By Michael PriceNov. 29, 2017 , 2:00 PM
http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/11/ … -societies

In fact, the prehistoric women’s bodies most closely resembled those of modern rowers, who specialize in repetitive, unidirectional pulling strength. That’s the same kind of strength needed for digging ditches, heaving around crop baskets and equipment, and grinding cereal grains. Among the prehistoric women, there was also more variation in strength than in modern women. That means that in these early agricultural societies, women likely specialized in various kinds of heavy manual labor, says Macintosh, whereas men split their time between farming and more lower body–intensive tasks like running and hunting.The findings are convincing, says May, and may help explain why bone diseases such as osteoporosis are so common in women today. Evolution may have shaped women’s bone structure to deal with the stresses of life on the move during hunter-gatherer times, and the rapid shift to a more stationary, farming-focused life might have led to weaker bones.


Lower limb skeletal biomechanics track long-term decline in mobility across ∼6150 years of agriculture in Central Europe
A.A.Macintosh, R.Pinhasi, J.T.Stocka, 2014
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a … 0314003331

Tibial loading in Central European farmers declined systematically across 6150 years.
Declines in lower limb loading were most pronounced in males.
Sedentary behavior among Central European males may date back to the Late Bronze Age.
Sexual dimorphism in lower limb bone strength was high prior to the Late Bronze Age.
Female tibial loading declined gradually across 6150 years of farming.

Central Europe is a region with a rich agricultural history that dates back to the emergence of the first Neolithic cultures here during the second part of the 6th millennium BC. The effects of prolonged cultural change on the skeletal morphology of agricultural populations in this region have not yet been fully reported. This study investigates diachronic trends in lower limb cross-sectional geometry among preindustrial Central Europeans spanning over 6000 years from the initial spread of agriculture in the region (∼5300 cal BC) to the Early Medieval (∼850 AD). Midshaft diaphyseal cross-sectional geometric (CSG) properties were derived from 443 three-dimensional laser scans of femora and tibiae. Results documented temporal change that was particularly pronounced in the tibia relative to the femur, indicative of declining compressional strength (males), bending and torsional rigidity (males), and increasingly more circular cross-sections (both sexes). When examined chronologically by cemetery, a major shift towards lower tibial rigidity was identified in the Late Bronze Age among males, after which time sexual dimorphism also declined. Regional variation in tibial rigidity was identified among males, being consistently low in males from modern-day Vojvodina (Serbia) relative to contemporaneous males elsewhere in Central Europe. In contrast, female temporal trends by cemetery were indicative of progressive but gradual declines in tibial loading. Results report systematic change in lower limb cross-sectional geometry among preindustrial Central European agriculturalists that are likely indicative of declining terrestrial mobility through 6000+ years of cultural change in the region.

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#75 16-05-2018 17:46:29

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It's out at last! Our big (N = 5,216) paper on sex differences in the human brain is now published at Cerebral Cortex:
https://twitter.com/StuartJRitchie/stat … 2409350144

Sex Differences in the Adult Human Brain: Evidence from 5216 UK Biobank Participants
Stuart J Ritchie Simon R Cox Xueyi Shen Michael V Lombardo Lianne M Reus Clara Alloza Mathew A Harris Helen L Alderson Stuart Hunter Emma Neilson
https://academic.oup.com/cercor/advance … 09/4996558

Neuroféminisme contre neurosexisme
Par Sylvie Chaperon, Professeure d’histoire contemporaine à l’Université de Toulouse Jean-Jaurès. — 15 mai 2018 à 18:16
http://www.liberation.fr/debats/2018/05 … me_1650273

la critique féministe des neurosciences s’organise et s’étend. Depuis 2010, le «NeuroGenderings Network», un réseau interdisciplinaire et international de vigilance, produit des colloques tous les deux ans et d’importantes contributions. Parmi les expertes, auxquelles j’ai beaucoup emprunté, signalons la philosophe des sciences Cynthia Kraus, la sociologue des sciences Odile Fillod et son blog «Allodoxia», la neurobiologiste Catherine Vidal. Neuroféminisme contre neurosexisme, constructivisme contre naturalisme : la science est aussi un combat politique.

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