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#26 17-04-2018 12:23:42

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Re : Cerveau, neurologie, intelligence

Vidéo avec Laurent Alexandre sur l'AI forte. Dans les discussions, discussion qui aurait pu être intéressante sur la question de l'origine de la conscience (initiée par "Régis Voiclair"), mais qui dégénère tout de suite, avec accusations d'aveuglement religieux, puis intervention d'un anti-darwinien. Intelligence KO technique à la 3ème reprise.
Serait intéressant de se demander ce qu'aurait pu donner cette discussion si on garde les bons arguments de chacun.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=syftZcc … e=youtu.be

La question fondamentale étant, dans l'évolution menant à la conscience, le rôle respectif de la perception et de l'intelligence. Le premier niveau de conscience de l'environnement extérieur, mais aussi du milieu intérieur commence bien avant l'apparition d'un système nerveux ou d'un cerveau (voir à ce sujet la photo de système nerveux censé représenter le moi).

Thèse
Présentée par
Anne-France P
ROUVOST
Pour l’obtention du grade de Docteur de l’Universit
é des Sciences et Technologies de Lille
Discipline : Sciences de la vie et de la santé
Rôle du périplasme dans la perception par la
bactérie de son environnement
https://ori-nuxeo.univ-lille1.fr/nuxeo/ … 391f51bb07


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#27 18-04-2018 10:46:43

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Re : Cerveau, neurologie, intelligence

The IQ trap: how the new genetics could transform education
The study of the genes that affect intelligence could revolutionise education. But, haunted by the spectre of eugenics, the science risks being lost in a political battle.
By Philip Ball

https://www.newstatesman.com/2018/04/iq … -education


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#28 20-04-2018 11:43:03

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Re : Cerveau, neurologie, intelligence

Placebo effects in cognitive training
Cyrus K. Foroughi, Samuel S. Monfort, Martin Paczynski, Patrick E. McKnight and P. M. Greenwood
PNAS June 20, 2016.
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2016/06/16/1601243113

Although a large body of research shows that general cognitive ability is heritable and stable in young adults, there is recent evidence that fluid intelligence can be heightened with cognitive training. Many researchers, however, have questioned the methodology of the cognitive-training studies reporting improvements in fluid intelligence: specifically, the role of placebo effects. We designed a procedure to intentionally induce a placebo effect via overt recruitment in an effort to evaluate the role of placebo effects in fluid intelligence gains from cognitive training. Individuals who self-selected into the placebo group by responding to a suggestive flyer showed improvements after a single, 1-h session of cognitive training that equates to a 5- to 10-point increase on a standard IQ test. Controls responding to a nonsuggestive flyer showed no improvement. These findings provide an alternative explanation for effects observed in the cognitive-training literature and the brain-training industry, revealing the need to account for confounds in future research.

Short- and long-term benefits of cognitive training
Susanne M. Jaeggi, Martin Buschkuehl, John Jonides and Priti Shah
PNAS June 21, 2011
http://www.pnas.org/content/108/25/10081.short

Does cognitive training work? There are numerous commercial training interventions claiming to improve general mental capacity; however, the scientific evidence for such claims is sparse. Nevertheless, there is accumulating evidence that certain cognitive interventions are effective. Here we provide evidence for the effectiveness of cognitive (often called “brain”) training. However, we demonstrate that there are important individual differences that determine training and transfer. We trained elementary and middle school children by means of a videogame-like working memory task. We found that only children who considerably improved on the training task showed a performance increase on untrained fluid intelligence tasks. This improvement was larger than the improvement of a control group who trained on a knowledge-based task that did not engage working memory; further, this differential pattern remained intact even after a 3-mo hiatus from training. We conclude that cognitive training can be effective and long-lasting, but that there are limiting factors that must be considered to evaluate the effects of this training, one of which is individual differences in training performance. We propose that future research should not investigate whether cognitive training works, but rather should determine what training regimens and what training conditions result in the best transfer effects, investigate the underlying neural and cognitive mechanisms, and finally, investigate for whom cognitive training is most useful.


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#29 22-04-2018 08:00:38

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Re : Cerveau, neurologie, intelligence

Steve Stewart-Williams
@SteveStuWill
2 hil y a 2 heures

Intelligence is one of the most powerful, well-validated concepts in psychology - one of the field's crowning achievements.
And yet most psychology students learn very little about it.

https://twitter.com/SteveStuWill/status … 3435862017

How Accurately Do Introductory Psychology Textbooks Present Psychoanalytic Theory?
https://www.researchgate.net/publicatio … tic_Theory


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#30 24-04-2018 11:12:41

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Re : Cerveau, neurologie, intelligence

Sur la question taille du groupe / nombre de Dunbar.

Technology and Society during the Middle Pleistocene: Hominid Group Size, Social Learning and Industrial Variability
Steven Mithen, 1994
https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals … AD87E1725F

Coevolution of neocortical size, group size and language in humans
R. I. M. Dunbar, 1993
https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals … 5A96E74FEF

Neocortex Size, Group Size, and the Evolution of Language
Leslie C. Aiello, and R. I. M. Dunbar, 1993
https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/a … nalCode=ca

Neocortex size and group size in primates: a test of the hypothesis
R.I.M.Dunbar
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a … 8485710214


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#31 24-04-2018 18:44:05

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Re : Cerveau, neurologie, intelligence

« Les plantes sont beaucoup plus intelligentes que les animaux »
Le «neurobiologiste végétal» Stefano Mancuso étudie les stratégies fascinantes et méconnues développées par les plantes pour survivre sans bouger
https://www.letemps.ch/sciences/plantes … gn=article


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#32 25-04-2018 21:37:40

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Re : Cerveau, neurologie, intelligence

The new genetics of intelligence
Robert Plomin and Sophie von Stumm, 2018
https://www.gwern.net/docs/iq/2018-plomin.pdf

Intelligence — the ability to learn, reason and solve problems — is at the forefront of
behavioural genetic research. Intelligence is highly heritable and predicts important educational,
occupational and health outcomes better than any other trait. Recent genome-wide association
studies have successfully identified inherited genome sequence differences that account for 20%
of the 50% heritability of intelligence. These findings open new avenues for research into the
causes and consequences of intelligence using genome-wide polygenic scores that aggregate
the effects of thousands of genetic variants.

Genome-wide association studies establish that human intelligence is highly heritable and polygenic
G Davies, A Tenesa[…]I J Deary, 2011
https://www.nature.com/articles/mp201185


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#33 26-04-2018 18:09:13

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Re : Cerveau, neurologie, intelligence

The left is heading for a reckoning with the new genetics
Toby Young
https://blogs.spectator.co.uk/2018/04/t … -genetics/


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#34 30-04-2018 11:42:39

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Re : Cerveau, neurologie, intelligence

The end of the Flynn effect?: A study of secular trends in mean intelligence test scores of Norwegian conscripts during half a century
Jon Martin Sundet, G.Barlaug, Tore M.Torjussen, 2004
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a … 9604000522

The present paper reports secular trends in the mean scores of a language, mathematics, and a Raven-like test together with a combined general ability (GA) score among Norwegian (male) conscripts tested from the mid 1950s to 2002 (birth cohorts ≈1935–1984). Secular gains in standing height (indicating improved nutrition and health care) were also investigated. Substantial gains in GA were apparent from the mid 1950s (test years) to the end 1960s–early 1970s, followed by a decreasing gain rate and a complete stop from the mid 1990s. The gains seemed to be mainly caused by decreasing prevalence of low scorers. From the early 1970s, the secular gains in GA were almost exclusively driven by gains on the Raven-like test. However, even the means on this particular test stopped to increase after the mid to late 1990s. It is concluded that the Flynn effect may have come to an end in Norway. Height gains were strongly correlated with intelligence gains until the cessation of height gains in the conscript cohorts towards the end of the 1980s. Contrary to the intelligence gains, the height gains (conscript cohorts 1969–2002) were most pronounced in the upper half of the distribution. Evidence indicating decreasing intercorrelations between tests is reported.

A long-term rise and recent decline in intelligence test performance: The Flynn Effect in reverse
Thomas W.Teasdale, David R.Owen, 2005
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a … 6905001145

In the 1980s reviewed evidence indicated that, through the preceding decades of the last century, population performance on intelligence tests had been rising substantially, typically about 3–5 IQ points per decade, in developed countries. The phenomenon, now termed the ‘Flynn Effect’, has been variously attributed to biological and/or to social and educational factors. Although there is some evidence to suggest a slowing of the effect through the 1990s, only little evidence, to our knowledge, has yet been presented to show an arrest or reversal of the trend. Substantially replicating a recent report from Norway, we here report intelligence test results from over 500,000 young Danish men, tested between 1959 and 2004, showing that performance peaked in the late 1990s, and has since declined moderately to pre-1991 levels. A contributing factor in this recent fall could be a simultaneous decline in proportions of students entering 3-year advanced-level school programs for 16–18 year olds.

Secular declines in cognitive test scores: A reversal of the Flynn Effect
Thomas W.Teasdale, David R.Owen, 2007
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a … 9607000189

Scores on cognitive tests have been very widely reported to have increased through the decades of the last century, a generational phenomenon termed the ‘Flynn Effect’ since it was most comprehensively documented by James Flynn in the 1980's. There has, however, been very little evidence concerning any continuity of the effect specifically into the present century. We here report data from a population, namely young adult males in Denmark, showing that whereas there were modest increases between 1988 and 1998 in scores on a battery of four cognitive tests–these constituting a diminishing continuation of a trend documented back to the late 1950's–scores on all four tests declined between 1998 and 2003/2004. For two of the tests, levels fell to below those of 1988. Across all tests, the decrease in the 5/6 year period corresponds to approximately 1.5 IQ points, very close to the net gain between 1988 and 1998. The declines between 1998 and 2003/4 appeared amongst both men pursuing higher academic education and those not doing so.

Secular rise in economically valuable personality traits
Markus Jokela, Tuomas Pekkarinen, Matti Sarvimäki, Marko Terviö and Roope Uusitalo
http://www.pnas.org/content/114/25/6527?etoc=

Although trends in many physical characteristics and cognitive capabilities of modern humans are well-documented, less is known about how personality traits have evolved over time. We analyze data from a standardized personality test administered to 79% of Finnish men born between 1962 and 1976 (n = 419,523) and find steady increases in personality traits that predict higher income in later life. The magnitudes of these trends are similar to the simultaneous increase in cognitive abilities, at 0.2–0.6 SD during the 15-y window. When anchored to earnings, the change in personality traits amounts to a 12% increase. Both personality and cognitive ability have consistent associations with family background, but the trends are similar across groups defined by parental income, parental education, number of siblings, and rural/urban status. Nevertheless, much of the trends in test scores can be attributed to changes in the family background composition, namely 33% for personality and 64% for cognitive ability. These composition effects are mostly due to improvements in parents’ education. We conclude that there is a “Flynn effect” for personality that mirrors the original Flynn effect for cognitive ability in magnitude and practical significance but is less driven by compositional changes in family background.

Were the Victorians cleverer than us? The decline in general intelligence estimated from a meta-analysis of the slowing of simple reaction time
Michael A.Woodley, Jante Nijenhuisc, RaeganMurphy, 2013

The Victorian era was marked by an explosion of innovation and genius, per capita rates of which appear to have declined subsequently. The presence of dysgenic fertility for IQ amongst Western nations, starting in the 19th century, suggests that these trends might be related to declining IQ. This is because high-IQ people are more productive and more creative. We tested the hypothesis that the Victorians were cleverer than modern populations, using high-quality instruments, namely measures of simple visual reaction time in a meta-analytic study. Simple reaction time measures correlate substantially with measures of general intelligence (g) and are considered elementary measures of cognition. In this study we used the data on the secular slowing of simple reaction time described in a meta-analysis of 14 age-matched studies from Western countries conducted between 1889 and 2004 to estimate the decline in g that may have resulted from the presence of dysgenic fertility. Using psychometric meta-analysis we computed the true correlation between simple reaction time and g, yielding a decline of − 1.16 IQ points per decade or − 13.35 IQ points since Victorian times. These findings strongly indicate that with respect to g the Victorians were substantially cleverer than modern Western populations.

Overview of the Flynn effect
Robert L.Williams, 2013
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a … 9613000512

Following WW2, various researchers found and reported secular gains in IQ, but it was not until additional reports appeared in the 1980s that researchers began to look for the cause or causes. It was quickly apparent that the gains were not limited to any group or nation, but the manifestation of the gains was different depending on time and place. For every discovery, there was a different or opposite result in a different data set. Gains have been large, small, variable, and even negative. Some researchers have found that the gains were on g, while more have found no g loading. Abstract test formats, such as the Raven have often shown the greatest gains, but gains have also appeared in tests of crystallized intelligence. Some data has shown greater gains for the lower half of the intelligence distribution, while others have shown greater gains in the top half, and others have shown equal gains at all levels. Hypotheses for the causes have included environmental factors, genetic effects, reduced fertility, and methodological dependence. Two models are discussed.

An item-level examination of the Flynn effect on the National Intelligence Test in Estonia
William Shiu, A. Alexander Beaujean, Olev Must, Jante Nijenhuis, Aasa Mustd
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a … 961300069X

This study examined the Flynn effect (FE; i.e., the rise in IQ scores over time) in Estonia using the Estonian version of the National Intelligence Tests (NIT; Haggerty, Terman, Thorndike, Whipple & Yerkes, 1919; National Research Council, 1920). Using secondary data from two cohorts (1934, n = 890 and 2006, n = 913) of students, we analyzed the NIT's subtests using item response theory (IRT). For each subtest, we first examined invariance in all the items and then linked the latent variable (θ) scores between the two cohorts using the invariant items. The results showed that there was a FE in θ for all subtests except one, although there was much variability in the FE magnitude, ranging from an effect size of 0.24 (3.60 IQ points) to 1.05 (15.75 IQ points). In addition, this study showed there was a decrease in the variability of θ for all the subtests, although only two of the subtests showed large decreases (approximately .50 standard deviations). Last, the subtests' precision of measuring θ was very similar at both time points.

Changes in test-taking patterns over time
OlevMust, AasaMust, 2013
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a … 9613000469

The current study aims to investigate the relationship between right, wrong and missing answers to cognitive test items (test-taking patterns) in the context of the Flynn Effect (FE). We compare two cohorts of Estonian students (1933/36, n = 890; 2006, n = 913) using an Estonian adaptation of the National Intelligence Tests and document three simultaneous trends: fewer missing answers (− 1 Cohen's d averaged over subtests), and a rise in the number of right and wrong answers to the subtests (average ds of .86 and .30, respectively). In the Arithmetical Reasoning and Vocabulary subtests, adjustments for false-positive answers (the number of right minus the number of wrong answers) reduced the size of the Flynn Effect by half. These subtests were supposed to be high g-loading subtests. Our conclusion is that rapid guessing has risen over time and influenced tests scores more strongly over the years. The FE is partly explained by changes in test-taking behavior over time.

The negative Flynn Effect: A systematic literature review
Edward Dutton, Dimitri van der Linden, Richard Lynn, 2016
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a … 9616300198
Complet ici : (p) https://www.gwern.net/docs/iq/2016-dutton.pdf

The Flynn Effect (rising performance on intelligence tests in the general population over time) is now an established phenomenon in many developed and less developed countries. Recently, evidence has begun to amass that the Flynn Effect has gone into reverse; the so-called ‘Negative Flynn Effect.’ In this study, we present a systematic literature review, conducted in order to discover in precisely how many countries this reverse phenomenon has been uncovered. Using strict criteria regarding quality of the sample and the study, we found nine studies reporting negative Flynn Effects in seven countries. We also discuss several possible explanations for the negative Flynn Effect as an attempt to understand its most probable causes.

Thirty years on – a large anti‐Flynn effect? The Piagetian test Volume & Heaviness norms 1975–2003
Michael Shayer, Denise Ginsburg, Robert Coe, 2011
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/ful … 9906X96987
Complet ici : http://www.iapsych.com/iqmr/fe/LinkedDo … er2007.pdf

Flynn effect and its reversal are both environmentally caused
Bernt Bratsberg and Ole Rogeberg
PNAS June 11, 2018
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2018/ … hort?rss=1

Significance
Using administrative register data with information on family relationships and cognitive ability for three decades of Norwegian male birth cohorts, we show that the increase, turning point, and decline of the Flynn effect can be recovered from within-family variation in intelligence scores. This establishes that the large changes in average cohort intelligence reflect environmental factors and not changing composition of parents, which in turn rules out several prominent hypotheses for retrograde Flynn effects.

Abstract
Population intelligence quotients increased throughout the 20th century—a phenomenon known as the Flynn effect—although recent years have seen a slowdown or reversal of this trend in several countries. To distinguish between the large set of proposed explanations, we categorize hypothesized causal factors by whether they accommodate the existence of within-family Flynn effects. Using administrative register data and cognitive ability scores from military conscription data covering three decades of Norwegian birth cohorts (1962–1991), we show that the observed Flynn effect, its turning point, and subsequent decline can all be fully recovered from within-family variation. The analysis controls for all factors shared by siblings and finds no evidence for prominent causal hypotheses of the decline implicating genes and environmental factors that vary between, but not within, families.

Dfh-gqqVMAAS-9n.jpg


One Century of Global IQ Gains
A Formal Meta-Analysis of the Flynn Effect (1909–2013)
Jakob Pietschnig, Martin Voracek
First Published May 18, 2015
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10. … 1615577701

The Flynn effect (rising intelligence test performance in the general population over time and generations) varies enigmatically across countries and intelligence domains; its substantive meaning and causes remain elusive. This first formal meta-analysis on the topic revealed worldwide IQ gains across more than one century (1909–2013), based on 271 independent samples, totaling almost 4 million participants, from 31 countries. Key findings include that IQ gains vary according to domain (estimated 0.41, 0.30, 0.28, and 0.21 IQ points annually for fluid, spatial, full-scale, and crystallized IQ test performance, respectively), are stronger for adults than children, and have decreased in more recent decades. Altogether, these findings narrow down proposed theories and candidate factors presumably accounting for the Flynn effect. Factors associated with life history speed seem mainly responsible for the Flynn effect’s general trajectory, whereas favorable social multiplier effects and effects related to economic prosperity appear to be responsible for observed differences of the Flynn effect across intelligence domains.

10.1177_174569161557770_SuppFigure1.jpg

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A reversal of the Flynn effect for spatial perception in German-speaking countries: Evidence from a cross-temporal IRT-based meta-analysis (1977–2014)
Jakob Pietschnig, Georg Gittler, 2015
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a … 9615001336

Highlights

Spatial perception scores decreased from 1977 to 2014 in German-speaking countries.
We observed an inverse u-shaped trajectory of IQ test score changes.
Changes remained robust when controlling for age, sample type, and sex.
Decreasing performance may be due to decreasing psychometric g.

Abstract

Generational IQ changes (the Flynn effect) have been shown to be predominantly positive but differentiated according to IQ domains and countries. However, evidence from recent studies points towards a decrease of the Flynn effect globally or even a reversal in some countries. In the present meta-analysis, we show an inverse u-shaped trajectory of IQ test performance changes in a large number of samples (k = 96; N = 13,172) on a well-known test for spatial perception (the three-dimensional cubes test, 3DC) in German-speaking countries over 38 years (1977–2014). Assessment of both item response theory-based measures as well as more standard measures of classical test theory showed initial increases and a subsequent decrease of performance when controlling for age, sample type (general population vs. mixed samples vs. university students) and sex. Our results suggest saturation and diminishing returns of IQ increasing factors (e.g., life history speed) whilst negative associations of IQ changes with psychometric g may have led to the observed IQ score decrease in more recent years.

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In the Netherlands the anti-Flynn effect is a Jensen effect
Michael A.Woodley, Gerhard Meisenberg, 2013
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a … 6913000056

In this study, 63 observations of secular IQ changes (both Flynn and anti-Flynn effects) are collected from three demographically diverse studies of the Dutch population for the period 1975–2005 (representing the 1950–1990 birth cohorts), along with data on g loadings and subtest reliabilities. The method of correlated vectors is used to explore the association between Flynn and anti-Flynn effect magnitudes, both independently and together, and the g loadings of subtests. Despite a positive vector correlation the Flynn effects are not associated with the Jensen effect (r = .307, ns, N = 36), however the anti-Flynn effects are (r = .406, P = .05, N = 27). Combined, the vector correlation becomes negative but non-significant (r = −.111, ns, N = 63). Declines due to the anti-Flynn effect are estimated at −4.515 points per decade, whereas gains due to the Flynn effect are estimated at 2.175 points per decade. The N-weighted net of these is a loss of −1.350 points per decade, suggesting an overall tendency towards decreasing IQ in the Netherlands with respect to these cohorts. The Jensen effect on the anti-Flynn effect suggests that it may be related to bio-demographic changes within the Netherlands which have reduced ‘genetic-g’, despite the presence of large, parallel gains on subtests that may be relatively more sensitive to cultural-environmental improvements.


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#35 07-05-2018 13:49:49

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Re : Cerveau, neurologie, intelligence

Steve Stewart-Williams
@SteveStuWill

A counter-intuitive discovery from behavioural genetics: The heritability of IQ increases with age, while the effect of the shared family environment largely evaporates
https://twitter.com/SteveStuWill/status … 9592333312

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Cognition Across Development and Context
Elliot M. Tucker-Drob, Daniel A. Briley, and K. Paige Harden
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/do … 1&type=pdf


DclTO2jVAAAPLd8.jpg


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#36 08-05-2018 21:07:45

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Re : Cerveau, neurologie, intelligence

Neurocentrisme


Pourquoi je ne suis pas mon cerveau
Markus Gabriel
http://www.telerama.fr/livres/pourquoi- … 153752.php


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#37 09-05-2018 07:09:26

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Re : Cerveau, neurologie, intelligence

Steve Stewart-Williams
@SteveStuWill
6 hil y a 6 heures

Effects of IQ and the Big Five personality traits on earning through the lifespan http://www.econ.ku.dk/gensowski/researc … Terman.pdf

Note that the effect of IQ may be underestimated due to range restriction (everyone in the sample scored in the top .5% for IQ)

https://twitter.com/SteveStuWill/status … 2429893632

Personality, IQ, and Lifetime Earnings
Miriam Gensowski
http://www.econ.ku.dk/gensowski/researc … Terman.pdf

iq-big-five-earnings.jpg?w=700


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#38 09-05-2018 17:49:18

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Re : Cerveau, neurologie, intelligence

L’intelligence proviendrait d’un algorithme dans le cerveau humain
http://www.apar.tv/performance/lintelli … au-humain/


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#39 10-05-2018 16:10:25

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Re : Cerveau, neurologie, intelligence

Laurent Alexandre : « Nos enfants devront être complémentaires de l’intelligence artificielle »
Une interview par Contrepoints de Laurent Alexandre à l’occasion de la sortie de son livre « La Guerre des intelligences ».
https://www.contrepoints.org/2017/12/04 … tificielle

L’esprit critique serait-il l’un des moyens de cohabiter harmonieusement avec une AI ?

C’est LE SEUL ! Le seul. Il faut que nous envoyions nos enfants là où l’intelligence artificielle est minable, et pas là où elle va être un million de fois meilleure qu’eux. Donc pas la peine d’en faire des comptables : l’IA va faire mieux avec la voiture autonome, l’informatisation du métier de comptable. Tous les savoirs fixés, figés, comme la comptabilité n’ont pas beaucoup d’avenir.

En revanche l’IA sous sa forme actuelle est incapable de faire face à la transversalité, les humanités, la multidisciplinarité, le travail de groupe, l’esprit critique. Cela suppose qu’on renverse le paradigme éducatif qui est beaucoup trop technique aujourd’hui.

Il faut que les enfants lisent beaucoup de livres et qu’ils développent leur esprit critique pour qu’ils soient au-dessus de l’intelligence artificielle et pas en-dessous.

L’IA est incapable d’avoir un esprit critique et du bon sens. Pour plusieurs décennies et pour des raisons techniques compliquées. Donc c’est là qu’il faut aller.


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#40 10-05-2018 17:37:07

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Re : Cerveau, neurologie, intelligence

CERVEAU: Une capacité d'un pétaoctet pour une consommation de 20 watts – eLife
https://blog.santelog.com/2016/01/27/ce … tts-elife/

Ces scientifiques du Salk Institute (La Jolla) qui ont reconstitué un modèle d’une zone clé du cerveau, l’hippocampe, le centre de la mémoire, ont étudié comme jamais les connexions des neurones via les synapses. Ce nouveau regard sur la taille et la quantité des connexions neuronales suggère une capacité de mémoire du cerveau bien plus élevée qu’on ne le pensait. Ces travaux, présentés dans la revue eLife contribuent aussi à expliquer comment, gâce à la plasticité synaptique, le cerveau, en dépit de l’immense quantité de données traitées et stockées est si économe en énergie. Des implications donc essentielles pour aller plus loin dans l’intelligence artificielle. Avec un objectif inatteignable, une capacité de stockage estimée à un pétaoctet (1015 octets), autant que toutes les données du web mondial !

Je doute que toutes les données du web mondial ne fassent que 10^15 octets.

Nanoconnectomic upper bound on the variability of synaptic plasticity
Thomas M Bartol Jr  Is a corresponding author , Cailey Bromer, Justin Kinney, Michael A Chirillo, Jennifer N Bourne, Kristen M Harris  Is a corresponding author , Terrence J Sejnowski, 2016
https://elifesciences.org/articles/10778

Information in a computer is quantified by the number of bits that can be stored and recovered. An important question about the brain is how much information can be stored at a synapse through synaptic plasticity, which depends on the history of probabilistic synaptic activity. The strong correlation between size and efficacy of a synapse allowed us to estimate the variability of synaptic plasticity. In an EM reconstruction of hippocampal neuropil we found single axons making two or more synaptic contacts onto the same dendrites, having shared histories of presynaptic and postsynaptic activity. The spine heads and neck diameters, but not neck lengths, of these pairs were nearly identical in size. We found that there is a minimum of 26 distinguishable synaptic strengths, corresponding to storing 4.7 bits of information at each synapse. Because of stochastic variability of synaptic activation the observed precision requires averaging activity over several minutes.
[...]
Measurements in a small cube of brain tissue revealed 26 different dendritic spine sizes, each associated with a distinct synaptic strength. This number translates into a storage capacity of roughly 4.7 bits of information per synapse. This estimate is markedly higher than previous suggestions. It implies that the total memory capacity of the brain – with its many trillions of synapses – may have been underestimated by an order of magnitude. Additional measurements in the same and other brain regions are needed to confirm this possibility.


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#41 13-05-2018 10:30:23

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Re : Cerveau, neurologie, intelligence

PaleoAnthropology+
@Qafzeh
Primate Cranial Diversity
https://twitter.com/Qafzeh/status/995519243520098305


Primate Cranial Diversity
By: Michelle Singleton Ph.D. (Department of Anatomy, Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine, Midwestern University) © 2013 Nature Education
https://www.nature.com/scitable/knowled … -108207646

primate-cranial-diversity.jpg


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#42 13-05-2018 10:38:08

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Re : Cerveau, neurologie, intelligence

Insect diet helped early humans build bigger brains, study suggests
June 26, 2014, Washington University in St. Louis
https://phys.org/news/2014-06-insect-di … igger.html


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#43 15-05-2018 20:09:08

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Re : Cerveau, neurologie, intelligence

Il est probable qu'une partie de la mémoire autre que génétique se trouve hors du système nerveux (membranes cellulaires, système "épigénétique"?)

Ces scientifiques ont transféré les souvenirs d’un mollusque dans un autre mollusque
Nicolas Prouillac
  | 15/05/2018
https://www.ulyces.co/news/ces-scientif … mollusque/


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#44 15-05-2018 20:13:33

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Re : Cerveau, neurologie, intelligence

Nanoconnectomic upper bound on the variability of synaptic plasticity
Thomas M Bartol Jr, Cailey Bromer, Justin Kinney, Michael A Chirillo, Jennifer N Bourne, Kristen M Harris, Terrence J Sejnowski, 2015

Information in a computer is quantified by the number of bits that can be stored and recovered. An important question about the brain is how much information can be stored at a synapse through synaptic plasticity, which depends on the history of probabilistic synaptic activity. The strong correlation between size and efficacy of a synapse allowed us to estimate the variability of synaptic plasticity. In an EM reconstruction of hippocampal neuropil we found single axons making two or more synaptic contacts onto the same dendrites, having shared histories of presynaptic and postsynaptic activity. The spine heads and neck diameters, but not neck lengths, of these pairs were nearly identical in size. We found that there is a minimum of 26 distinguishable synaptic strengths, corresponding to storing 4.7 bits of information at each synapse. Because of stochastic variability of synaptic activation the observed precision requires averaging activity over several minutes.


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#45 23-05-2018 12:32:58

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Re : Cerveau, neurologie, intelligence

« Mon inquiétude, c’est que l’humain devienne de plus en plus stupide »
Annabelle Laurent
https://usbeketrica.com/article/mon-inq … us-stupide

L’implant est, dit-il, de la taille d’un grain de riz, pèse un moins de deux grammes et est destiné à être inséré dans des zones du cortex. Voilà ce sur quoi planche Newton Howard, professeur de neurosciences computationnelles et de neurochirurgie à Oxford, et directeur du MIT Synthetic Intelligence Lab. Dans quel but ? Mieux traiter la maladie de Parkinson, la dépression, ou la maladie d’Alzheimer, dans un premier temps. Mais le scientifique voit au-delà, et compte s’adresser à tous, en promettant des améliorations cognitives dont, il en est persuadé, chacun de nous aura besoin. Déclin cognitif, quête du siège de la conscience, choix de la France pour implanter sa société ni2o, « mode » des neurosciences, projet Neuralink d’Elon Musk… On a discuté avec le scientifique en amont de son intervention au festival FUTUR.E.S, qui se tiendra du 21 ou 23 juin à Paris, à la grande Halle de la Villette.


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#46 27-05-2018 16:30:19

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Re : Cerveau, neurologie, intelligence

L'IA facilement bluffée.
L’«intelligence artificielle», nouvelle «arme de manipulation massive»?
par Xavier Studer • 21/05/2018 • 6 commentaires   
https://www.xavierstuder.com/2018/05/21 … n-massive/


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#47 03-06-2018 08:02:14

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Re : Cerveau, neurologie, intelligence

Steve Stewart-Williams
@SteveStuWill

When it comes to IQ, kids get more similar to their biological parents as they get older, but less similar to adopted parents

https://twitter.com/SteveStuWill/status … 0849234944
Det9h3JV4AA28Ze.jpg


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#48 09-06-2018 05:51:13

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Re : Cerveau, neurologie, intelligence

IQ correlations, Savage & al., 2018

DfMpC2KX4AAqoi7.jpg


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#49 09-06-2018 09:13:47

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Re : Cerveau, neurologie, intelligence

La maladie d'Alzheimer est-elle un grand leurre?
Jean-Yves Nau — 29 mai 2018 à 15h59 — mis à jour le 29 mai 2018 à 17h00
La «maladie du siècle» ne serait qu’une «construction sociale pour décrire la vieillesse».

https://www.slate.fr/story/162330/malad … 1527606869

Page facebook "Mythe de la maladie d'Alzheimer"
https://www.facebook.com/Mythe.Alzheime … tw&fref=nf


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#50 10-06-2018 08:12:01

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Re : Cerveau, neurologie, intelligence

Steve Stewart-Williams
@SteveStuWill
22 mai

Ten Common IQ Myths Debunked
https://twitter.com/SteveStuWill/status … 9883255808

DdzS-pcVAAEuU2J.jpg


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