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#1 04-03-2017 17:03:21

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Bipédie / Marche / Course

Points clés sur la bipédie :
Une espèce peut être considérée comme totalement bipède si la bipédie est son mode de déplacement principal ET le plus efficace en toutes circonstances.
Il existe des espèces dont la bipédie est partielle. Ce sont des espèces capable de marcher sur leurs 2 membres postérieurs, mais qui possèdent d'autres modes de locomotions plus efficaces soit dans l'absolu, soit dans la majorité des situations cruciales pour leur survie. Les grands singes sont capables de marcher, voire courir sur 2 pattes, mais sont bien plus efficaces sur 4. Ils ne peuvent pas être considérés comme bipèdes.
Dans la lignée humaine, quelques compétences bipèdes apparaissent il y a plus de 10 millions d'années, mais la bipédie totale n'est atteinte qu'il y a 3 millions d'années au mieux, et la compétence bipède évolue encore après cela, avec l'acquisition des compétences de course à l'endurance sur longue distance, qui n'est totalement acquise que vers -1,5 millions d'années.
Cette période (-3 millions à -1,5 millions) voit encore des évolutions anatomiques majeures : diminution de la taille des orteils, disparition du caractère préhenseur du gros orteil, gros renforcement du tendon d'Achile et apparition du tendon nuchal, importante diminution de la pilosité et importante augmentation des capacités de sudation, allongement significatif de la longueur des jambes, poursuite des modifications du bassin, de la colonne vertébrale et de la cage thoracique...


Argumentaires Frédéric Delavier contre l'Homme coureur de fond :
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jGtAkNRbq5Y
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zdzVmSGC8cg

Ambam le gorille bipède :
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NqK-hpIomEE


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#2 04-03-2017 17:31:42

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Re : Bipédie / Marche / Course

Endurance running and the evolution of Homo
Bramble, Lieberman, 2004
http://www.barefootrunning.fas.harvard. … ofHomo.pdf
https://barefootrunning.fas.harvard.edu … ofHomo.pdf

The evolution of marathon running : capabilities in humans
Lieberman, Bramble, 2007
https://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/hand … sequence=3

The human gluteus maximus and its role in running
Un excellent résumé en 1 page de la théorie de la course à l'épuisement :
http://www.toledoblade.com/attachment/2 … he-Run.pdf

Daniel E. Lieberman, David A. Raichlen, Herman Pontzer, Dennis M. Bramble and Elizabeth Cutright-Smith, 2006
https://www.fas.harvard.edu/~skeleton/pdfs/2006b.pdf

L'homme préhistorique plus rapide que Usain Bolt ?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qae-PeRBX3Q

Ascent of Man image should be ‘the other way around’, leading expert in human evolution says
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/scien … 30371.html

‘Chimpanzees and humans are both descended from something more like living humans than living chimpanzees – however uncomfortable that may be to us’

Rearfoot striking runners are more economical than midfoot strikers.
Ogueta-Alday A1, Rodríguez-Marroyo JA, García-López J.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24002340

Effects of Footwear and Strike Type on Running Economy
DANIEL P. PERL, ADAM I. DAOUD, and DANIEL E. LIEBERMAN, 2012
https://www.fas.harvard.edu/~skeleton/pdfs/2012a.pdf


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#3 04-03-2017 18:29:55

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Re : Bipédie / Marche / Course

Science. 1983 Jan 21;219(4582):251-6.
Running and breathing in mammals.
Bramble DM, Carrier DR.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6849136

Abstract

Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

Toute la bibliographie de Davis Carrier :
http://biologylabs.utah.edu/carrier/Int … ating.html


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#4 04-03-2017 21:34:00

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Re : Bipédie / Marche / Course

Humans hot, sweaty, natural-born runners
http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2 … n-runners/


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#5 27-03-2017 11:03:11

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Re : Bipédie / Marche / Course

The Naked truth

Recent findings lay bare the origins of human
hairlessness—and hint that naked skin was a key factor
in the emergence of other human traits
By NiNa G. JaBloNski

http://adamoliverbrown.com/wp-content/u … ssness.pdf


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#6 16-05-2017 07:32:45

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Re : Bipédie / Marche / Course

L'homme, fait pour courir ?
Un reportage sur les Tarahumaras

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pk5oZ0gWFgg


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#7 16-05-2017 11:47:21

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Re : Bipédie / Marche / Course

Your Shoes Will Be Printed Shortly
https://www.wsj.com/articles/your-shoes … 1494763201


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#8 29-05-2017 15:05:28

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Re : Bipédie / Marche / Course

Mechanical Links Between Locomotion and Breathing:
Can You Breathe With Your Legs?
http://baillement.com/texte-breath-legs.pdf


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#9 02-06-2017 18:18:46

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Re : Bipédie / Marche / Course

Extreme endurance and the metabolic range of sustained activity is uniquely available for every human not just the elite few (abstract)
B.C. Ruby & al

It is unclear whether the capabilities of recreationally active modern humans are unique due to present training practices or linked to the selection resulting from migration, escape, scavenging, and hunting and/or endurance running in early Homo. The purpose of this study was to determine upper values for total energy expenditure (TEE) and water turnover during sustained work for periods of 12-24 and 12-48 h, respectively and compare them with other species and proposed activities of early Homo. Stable isotopic water (2H218O) was used during competitions in hot environments to establish energy expenditure rates of approaching 10 times resting metabolism (RM) for 12.7 and 26.8 h, respectively. These events demonstrate pronounced hydration demands, with water output rates ranging from 25–95% of initial total body water for events lasting 12–48 h, respectively. These results provide new evidence for a high, sustained work (0.5–2 days) output and hydration demand in humans compared to other species in hot environments. Although the span for sustained metabolic activity in humans is large, it does not require elite level training status so long as adequate exogenous fuel and water are accessible. Because these values far exceed reported expectations/needs for foraging and persistence hunting in early Homo, it remains unclear if the phenomenon of the metabolic range is a modern human characteristic. While modern recreational endurance participants can demonstrate a TEE approaching 10 times RM, the rationale and need for such a high human metabolic ceiling is unclear when considering the energy demands of early Homo.


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#10 02-06-2017 18:31:43

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Re : Bipédie / Marche / Course

Metabolic characteristics of keto-adapted
ultra-endurance runners
Volek & al, 2015
http://www.wageningenacademic.com/doi/a … alCode=cep

Background.
Many successful ultra-endurance athletes have switched from a high-
carbohydrate to a low-carbohydrate diet, but they have not previously been studied to
determine the extent of metabolic adaptations.
Methods.
Twenty elite ultra-marathoners and ironman distance triathletes performed a
maximal graded exercise test and a 180 min submaximal run at 64% VO
2
max on a treadmill
to determine metabolic responses. One group habitually consumed a traditional high-
carbohydrate (HC:
n=10
, %carbohydrate:protein:fat = 59:14:25) diet, and the other a low-
carbohydrate (LC;
n=10
, 10:19:70) diet for an average of 20 months (range 9 to 36 months).
Results.
Peak fat oxidation was 2.3-fold higher in the LC group (1.54 ± 0.18 vs 0.67 ±
0.14 g/min;
P = 0.000
) and it occurred at a higher percentage of VO
2
max (70.3 ± 6.3 vs 54.9 ±
7.8%;
P = 0.000
). Mean fat oxidation during submaximal exercise was 59% higher in the LC
group (1.21 ± 0.02 vs 0.76 ± 0.11 g/min;
P = 0.000
) corresponding to a greater relative
contribution of fat (88 ± 2 vs 56 ± 8%;
P = 0.000
). Despite these marked differences in fuel
use between LC and HC athletes, there were no significant differences in resting muscle
glycogen and the level of depletion after 180 min of running (

64% from pre-exercise) and
120 min of recovery (

36% from pre-exercise).
Conclusion.
Compared to highly trained ultra-endurance athletes consuming an HC diet,
long-term keto-adaptation results in extraordinarily high rates of fat oxidation, whereas
muscle glycogen utilization and repletion patterns during and after a 3 hour run are similar.


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#11 02-06-2017 18:45:28

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Re : Bipédie / Marche / Course

Persistance hunting

The endurance running hypothesis and hunting and scavenging in savanna-woodlands.
Pickering TR, Bunn HT.(2007). Ni abstract ni texte.

The relevance of persistence hunting to human evolution.
Liebenberg L. 2008
https://www.cybertracker.org/downloads/ … unting.pdf

Optimal running speed and the evolution of hominin hunting strategies.
Steudel-Numbers, Wall-Scheffler CM, 2009
Author information
Abstract

Recent discussion of the selective pressures leading to the evolution of modern human postcranial morphology, seen as early as Homo erectus, has focused on the relative importance of walking versus running. Specifically, these conversations have centered on which gait may have been used by early Homo to acquire prey. An element of the debate is the widespread belief that quadrupeds are constrained to run at optimally efficient speeds within each gait, whereas humans are equally efficient at all running speeds. The belief in the lack of optimal running speeds in humans is based, however, on a number of early studies with experimental designs inadequate for the purpose of evaluating optimality. Here we measured the energetic cost of human running (n=9) at six different speeds for five minutes at each speed, with careful replicates and controls. We then compared the fit of linear versus curvilinear models to the data within each subject. We found that individual humans do, in fact, have speeds at which running is significantly less costly than at other speeds (i.e., an optimal running speed). In addition, we demonstrate that the use of persistence hunting methods to gain access to prey at any running speed, even the optimum, would be extremely costly energetically, more so than a persistence hunt at optimal walking speed. We argue that neither extinct nor extant hominin populations are as flexible in the chosen speeds of persistence hunting pursuits as other researchers have suggested. Variations in the efficiency of human locomotion appear to be similar to those of terrestrial quadrupeds.

Optimal speeds for walking and running, and walking on a moving walkway.
Srinivasan, 2009.

Abstract

Many aspects of steady human locomotion are thought to be constrained by a tendency to minimize the expenditure of metabolic cost. This paper has three parts related to the theme of energetic optimality: (1) a brief review of energetic optimality in legged locomotion, (2) an examination of the notion of optimal locomotion speed, and (3) an analysis of walking on moving walkways, such as those found in some airports. First, I describe two possible connotations of the term "optimal locomotion speed:" that which minimizes the total metabolic cost per unit distance and that which minimizes the net cost per unit distance (total minus resting cost). Minimizing the total cost per distance gives the maximum range speed and is a much better predictor of the speeds at which people and horses prefer to walk naturally. Minimizing the net cost per distance is equivalent to minimizing the total daily energy intake given an idealized modern lifestyle that requires one to walk a given distance every day--but it is not a good predictor of animals' walking speeds. Next, I critique the notion that there is no energy-optimal speed for running, making use of some recent experiments and a review of past literature. Finally, I consider the problem of predicting the speeds at which people walk on moving walkways--such as those found in some airports. I present two substantially different theories to make predictions. The first theory, minimizing total energy per distance, predicts that for a range of low walkway speeds, the optimal absolute speed of travel will be greater--but the speed relative to the walkway smaller--than the optimal walking speed on stationary ground. At higher walkway speeds, this theory predicts that the person will stand still. The second theory is based on the assumption that the human optimally reconciles the sensory conflict between the forward speed that the eye sees and the walking speed that the legs feel and tries to equate the best estimate of the forward speed to the naturally preferred speed. This sensory conflict theory also predicts that people would walk slower than usual relative to the walkway yet move faster than usual relative to the ground. These predictions agree qualitatively with available experimental observations, but there are quantitative differences.


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#12 02-06-2017 19:34:25

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Re : Bipédie / Marche / Course

Energy expenditure of walking and running: comparison with prediction equations.
Hall C1, Figueroa A, Fernhall B, Kanaley JA. 2004
https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.d … Runnin.pdf

Abstract

PURPOSE:

This study established the published prediction equations for the energy expenditure of walking and running compared with the measured values. To make this comparison we first determined whether differences exist in energy expenditure for 1600 m of walking versus running, and whether energy expenditure differences occur due to being on the track or treadmill.
METHODS:

Energy was measured via indirect calorimetry in 24 subjects while walking (1.41 m.s(-1)) and running (2.82 m.s(-1)) 1600 m on the treadmill. A subgroup also performed the 1600-m run/walk on the track. The measured energy expenditures were compared with published prediction equations.
RESULTS:

Running required more energy (P < 0.01) for 1600 m than walking (treadmill: running 481 +/- 20.0 kJ, walking 340 +/- 14 kJ; track: running 480 +/- 23 kJ, walking 334 +/- 14 kJ) on both the track and treadmill. Predictions using the ACSM or Leger equations for running, and the Pandolf equation for walking, were similar to the actual energy expenditures for running and walking (total error: ACSM: -20 and 14.4 kJ, respectively; Legers walking: -10.1 kJ; Pandolf walking: -10.0 kJ). An overestimation (P < 0.01) for 1600 m was found with the McArdle's table for walking and running energy expenditure and with van der Walt's prediction for walking energy expenditure, whereas the Epstein equation underestimated running energy expenditure (P < 0.01).
CONCLUSION:

Running has a greater energy cost than walking on both the track and treadmill. For running, the Leger equation and ACSM prediction model appear to be the most suitable for the prediction of running energy expenditure. The ACSM and Pandolf prediction equation also closely predict walking energy expenditure, whereas the McArdle's table or the equations by Epstein and van der Walt were not as strong predictors of energy expenditure.


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#13 02-06-2017 19:44:07

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Re : Bipédie / Marche / Course

The energy cost of horizontal walking and running in adolescents.
Walker JL1, Murray TD, Jackson AS, Morrow JR Jr, Michaud TJ.
Author information
Abstract

PURPOSE:

This study developed and cross-validated generalized equations for predicting VO2 (mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and caloric expenditure (kcal x kg(-1) x min(-1)) during horizontal walking and running in adolescents.
METHODS:

Subjects were 47 male and 35 female adolescent volunteers, ages 12-18. Each subject underwent a submaximal treadmill exercise test to determine VO2 at randomly selected walking and jogging speeds (67-215 m x min(-1)). Caloric expenditure was estimated from VO2 and RER. Multiple regression was used to develop prediction equations for estimating VO2 and caloric expenditure from a derivation sample of 77 random observations, both walking and running.
RESULTS:

The group relationship between running speed and energy cost in the derivation sample was linear, whereas the relationship between walking speed and energy cost was quadratic. Gender, age, and height each failed to account for significant additional variation in energy cost after speed and mode were considered. Skinfolds accounted for a small yet significant amount of additional variation in energy cost. The derived equations were cross-validated on a sample of 76 separate random observations. The cross-validation statistics are: for VO2, R = 0.95, error = 3.58 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1), and for caloric expenditure, R = 0.94, error = 0.019 kcal x kg(-1) x min(-1). Most selected adult equations consistently underestimated both VO2 and caloric expenditure in the cross-validation sample.
CONCLUSIONS:

These results suggest that in adolescents, within the range of speeds tested, the relationship between speed of movement and energy cost for running is linear, but for walking is curvilinear. Also, adult models for estimating VO2 or caloric expenditure do not account for the higher relative energy cost of walking and running in adolescents.

-----


Energy Expenditure at Rest and
During Exercise
Bjorn Ekblom, 2001
http://www.ttdinhduong.org/tailieudinhduong/12.pdf


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#14 02-06-2017 19:45:58

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Re : Bipédie / Marche / Course


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#15 02-06-2017 20:02:23

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Re : Bipédie / Marche / Course

Margaria, R., Cerretelli, P., Aghemo, P., Sassi, G., 1963. Energy cost of running. J. Appl. Physiol. 18, 367–370.
Menier and Pugh, 1968 D.R. Menier and L.G.C.E. Pugh, The relation of oxygen intake and velocity of walking and running in competition walkers. J. Physiol. (Lond), 197 (1968), pp. 717–721.
Carrier, D.R., 1984. The energetic paradox of human running and hominid evolution. Curr. Anthropol. 25, 483–495.
McArdle et al., 2001 W.D. McArdle, F.I. Katch and V.L. Katch, Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, (fifth ed.), Lippincott, Williams and Wilkens, New York (2001).
Zuntz, N. (1897). Uber den Stoffverbrauch des Hundes bei Muskelarbeit. Arch. ges. Physiol. 68, 191–211.
Roberts, T., Kram, R., Weyand, P., Taylor, CR., 1998. Energetics of bipedal running. I. Metabolic cost of generating force.J Exp Biol 201, 2745-2751.
Daniels, J., Daniels, N., 1992. Running economy of elite male and elite female runners. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 24, 483–489.
Fletcher, J., Esau, S., MacIntosh, B., 2009. Economy of Running: beyond the measurement of oxygen uptake. J Appl Physiol 107:1918-1922.
Steudel-Numbers, K., Wall-Scheffler, C., 2009. Optimal running speed and the evolution of hominin hunting strategies. Journal of Human Evolution. 56, 355–360.
Kram, R., Taylor, CR., 1990. Economy of running: a new perspective. Nature. 346, 265 – 267
Hoyt, D., Taylor, C. Gait and the energetics of locomotion in horses. Nature. 292, 239-240.
Chapman R., Layman A., Wilhite, D., McKenzie, J., Tanner, D., Stager, J. Ground contact time as an indicator of metabolic cost in elite distance runners. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 2011.
Davies, C., Thompson, M. Aerobic performance of female marathon and male ultramarathon athletes. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 41:233-245, 1979.
Hagan, R., Strathman, L., Gettman, L. Oxygen uptake and energy expenditure during horizontal treadmill running. J Appl. Physiol. 49:571-575, 1980.
Morgan, D et al., 1995.Variation in the aerobic demand among trained and untrained subjects. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. Vol. 27, No. 3, 404-409.
Jones, A., 2006. The physiology of the world record holder for the women’s marathon. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching. Vol. 1, No. 2, 101-116.


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#16 02-06-2017 20:32:26

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Re : Bipédie / Marche / Course

What We Can Learn About Running from Barefoot
Running: An Evolutionary Medical Perspective
Daniel E. Lieberman
http://beawesome.dk/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/ESSR.pdf

Foot Strike and Injury Rates in Endurance
Runners: A Retrospective Study
ADAM I. DAOUD
GARY J. GEISSLER
FRANK WANG
JASON SARETSKY
YAHYA A. DAOUD
and DANIEL E. LIEBERMAN
http://beawesome.dk/wp-content/uploads/ … al2012.pdf


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#17 03-06-2017 12:18:14

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Re : Bipédie / Marche / Course

The barefoot professor.
Lieberman expliquant les tenants de la course à l'épuisement, de la course pieds nus, de la manière naturelle de courir...
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7jrnj-7YKZE


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#18 03-06-2017 16:04:57

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Re : Bipédie / Marche / Course

Foot strike patterns and collision forces in habitually barefoot versus shod runners
https://www.researchgate.net/publicatio … od_runners

Humans have engaged in endurance running for millions of years, but the modern running shoe was not invented until the 1970s. For most of human evolutionary history, runners were either barefoot or wore minimal footwear such as sandals or moccasins with smaller heels and little cushioning relative to modern running shoes. We wondered how runners coped with the impact caused by the foot colliding with the ground before the invention of the modern shoe. Here we show that habitually barefoot endurance runners often land on the fore-foot (fore-foot strike) before bringing down the heel, but they sometimes land with a flat foot (mid-foot strike) or, less often, on the heel (rear-foot strike). In contrast, habitually shod runners mostly rear-foot strike, facilitated by the elevated and cushioned heel of the modern running shoe. Kinematic and kinetic analyses show that even on hard surfaces, barefoot runners who fore-foot strike generate smaller collision forces than shod rear-foot strikers. This difference results primarily from a more plantarflexed foot at landing and more ankle compliance during impact, decreasing the effective mass of the body that collides with the ground. Fore-foot- and mid-foot-strike gaits were probably more common when humans ran barefoot or in minimal shoes, and may protect the feet and lower limbs from some of the impact-related injuries now experienced by a high percentage of runners.


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#19 14-06-2017 13:54:18

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Re : Bipédie / Marche / Course

Quel sport pratiquer pour vivre plus longtemps?
https://www.lanutrition.fr/les-news/que … -longtemps


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#20 20-06-2017 12:19:52

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Re : Bipédie / Marche / Course


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#21 12-07-2017 22:23:35

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Hunter-gatherer past taught our brains to love exercise
http://www.futurity.org/exercise-brain- … n-1471332/


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#22 12-01-2018 11:19:39

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L'évolution de la taille et du poids dans la lignée humaine renforce la thèse d'une adoption de la chasse à l'épuisement vers -1,5 millions d'années.

Height and weight evolved at different speeds in the bodies of our ancestors
November 7, 2017, University of Cambridge
https://phys.org/news/2017-11-height-we … stors.html


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#23 16-01-2018 15:25:48

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#24 20-01-2018 18:33:11

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Oréopithèque, bipède ou pas ?

L’oréopithèque, un singe du Miocène, n’était finalement pas bipède
http://www.maxisciences.com/singe/l-ore … 30339.html

Différent de celui des humains et plus proche de celui des singes, le bas du dos de l’oréopithèque est incompatible avec les exigences fonctionnelles de la bipédie constante, estiment les auteurs. "Nos résultats offrent un nouvel éclairage sur le débat relatif à la locomotion d’Oreopithecus. Bien qu'il soit certainement possible qu’Oreopithecus marchait sur deux jambes dans une certaine mesure, comme certains singes sont connus pour le faire sur de courtes durées, une quantité croissante de preuves anatomiques démontre clairement que ce n’était pas habituel chez lui", conclut Gabrielle Russo.


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#25 25-01-2018 20:07:37

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Modifications anatomiques depuis l'Australopithèque

http://sapiens-cursor.com/

https://www.futura-sciences.com/science … 94/page/6/


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